9 1 0 2 / 1 e u s s I e Journal Pipeline Technology Journal INLINE INSPECTION / INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT www.pipeline-journal.net ISSN 2196-4300
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PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 3 EDITORIAL We face many challenges – together we must find solutions Oil and gas pipelines around the world are facing a number of challenges that will shape our industry in a severe way and require us to work even more closely to- gether than ever before in order to develop innovative solutions to these challenges. At the annual Pipeline Technology Conference (ptc) in Berlin and in the Pipeline Technology Journal (prj), we regularly cover topics, lead them into international discussion and thus support pipeline developers and operators around the world to make their pipelines safer, more reliable and more economical. Admir Celovic Director Publications In addition to some 80 presentations on the further development of material, technology, construction and operation of pipelines, the 14th ptc will also include the two new side conferences Public Perception / Qualification & Recruitment, as well as panel discussions and plenary sessions about a number of current pipeline topics: Illegal Tapping Just a short while ago, a devastating pipeline explosion killed about 100 people in Mexico. The explosion was caused by illegal tapping of a fuel pipeline. This problem may be extreme in Mexico, but it certainly is not limited to this county. Even in western countries, the numbers of illegal tappings are raising. Eurasia Large TSOs from Asia and Eastern Europa and their technology subsidiaries are pushing their way into the markets in North America and Europe. This increases the competition in these markets, but also opens up new business opportunities in their home regions. However, there are still many hurdles to overcome in order to connect East and West. From fossil to renewable fuels In 2018, the European Commission adopted a strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, compet- itive and climate neutral economy by 2050. The decline in the cost of renewable energies has opened the prospect of large-scale production of green hydrogen and liquid e-fuels. Pipelines could play an important role in this process. Digital Transformation As the energy industry is already preparing for a consistent digital transformation, another big development for improving the integrity of the systems by big data analytics will be expected. Furthermore, as manufac- turers and service providers will make use of IoT tools and products, the energy industry as a critical infra- structure must also gradually improve cyber security. Don’t waste this chance and participate in the upcoming ptc. Together we can increase the pipeline indus- try’s safety, reliability, and profitability. www.pipeline-conference.com www.pipeline-journal.com www.pipeline-qualification.com www.pipeline-perception.com Yours, > Admir Celovic, Director Publications EITEP Institut
4 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL THIS ISSUE’S COMPLETE CONTENT JANUARY 2019 / ISSUE 1 TECHNICAL ARTICLES RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY Quality control in the passive corrosion protection – the coating inspector Dr. Thomas Löffler / Andre Graßmann / Hilmar Jansen DENSO / Open Grid Europe The key of safety and reliable operation is the pipeline integrity Main elements and importance of pipeline integrity Ferenc Peterfalvi MOL PREDICTING THE FUTURE - Applying corrosion growth rates from in-line inspections Jane Dawson Baker Hughes, a GE company Improving Pipeline Scraping Operation – A systematic Approach and Case Study Husain Al-Muslim / Mousa Al-Harbi Saudi Aramco SPECIAL CONTENT New Opportunities For Pipeline Diagnostics: Transneft Diascan Case Study Alexander Voronov Transneft INDUSTRY NEWS Crondall Energy Appoints New Managing Director To Its Consulting Division Many casualties in pipeline explosion in Mexico Comment: Illegal tapping is a serious and rising problem. Together we can fight it. Comment: Asian and Eastern European TSO’s are pushing their way into North America and Western Europe Shell Moving Forward with North Sea Shearwater Pipeline Petrobras Seeking to Divest Its 4500-km Of Pipeline Assets And Focus On Deep Water Investments The Pipeline Transport Institute and Transneft Diascan Sign Agreements with Algeria-Based Sonatrach REPORTS CONFERENCES / SEMINARS / EXHIBITIONS Linkedin Showcase ptc 2019 Preview www.twitter.com/pipelinejournal www.facebook.com/ Pipeline.Technology.Conference www.pipeline-journal.net ptj Job & Carrer Market Event Calender Company Directory Page 62 52 60 67 8 16 30 36 42 48 49 50 51
Construction on Enbridge’s Line 3 Replacement Program progresses in Alberta and Saskatchewan in 2017. The L3RP, with a targeted completion date of 2019, will fully replace 1,660 kilometres (1,031 miles) of Line 3, one of the primary conduits in En- bridge’s Mainline crude oil network, between Hard- isty and Superior, Wisconsin.
QUALITY CONTROL IN THE PASSIVE CORROSION PROTECTION – THE COATING INSPECTOR Dr. Thomas Löffler > DENSO; Andre Graßmann; Hilmar Jansen > Open Grid Europe Abstract A highly sophisticated and well coordinated active and passive corrosion protection is mandatory for a long-lasting integrity and an error-free operation of a new pipeline. Furthermore, importance from an economic point of view it is of essential importance for the achievement of the target lifetime. The passive corrosion protection includes all activities shielding the steel from corrosive media. This can be realized for instance either by a suited plating or coating or by constructional features. With respect of the con- struction of buried pipelines there is a detailed technical regulation for all relevant applications. Beside the choice of the correct material and its quality a high-grade workmanship is of crucial significance, es- pecially in the course of field joint coatings. After successful implementation of the tools of error prevention like product training or optimal material usage, according to the Poka Yoke principle, coming from the automotive industry, only the possibility of inspection of sources of error remains. Applied to the pipeline construction this means quality control of the used components and materials as well of the coating works in the field. For this reason coating inspectors have been established for the first time in 2012 within the framework of the pipeline project Loop Sannerz-Rimpar of the Open Grid Europe GmbH, in order to execute the mentioned tasks of inspection of sources of errors / quality control. Since then the acceptance of this specifically skilled expert in the pipeline industry is backed by a draft technical standard prepared in a DVGW committee. It describes the qualification as well as the duties and responsibilities of the coating experts.
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 9 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Passive corrosion Protection 1.2. Mill coating The world corrosion organization estimates the costs caused by corrosion at about 3.300 billion US$ per year . In most of the industrialized countries the costs caused by corrosion are around 3 % of the gross domestic product gdp and come up to 5 % in some cases. Further- more, if one takes into account, that by the use of avail- able technology cost savings of annual 990 billion US$ could be reached, it is obvious that the coating of a buried steel pipeline is a substantial condition for a technical reliable and an economical corrosion protection. Depending on the thermal and mechanical requirements as well as the geometry of the components, nowadays the fol- lowing mill coatings are used nearly exclusively in Germany • • • 3 layer polyethylene (mainly HD-PE) according to DIN EN ISO 21809-1 or DIN 30670 3 layer polypropylen according to DIN EN ISO 21809-1 or DIN 30678 Polyurethane according to DIN EN 10290 (pipes, pipe fittings and valves) and DIN 30677-2 respectively From a technological but also from an economical point of view usually a combination of active and pas- sive corrosion protection is implemented. Theoretically a sufficient corrosion protection could be achieved solely by the use of cathodic protection, but for finan- cial and technical reasons this is not an option. The use of a coating allows a low current demand paralleled by an optimal distribution of the protective current. There is a quantity of requirements the coating has to fulfill, arising from the mentioned properties that it is necessary for a functional corrosion protection (see Table 1). A principle distinction can be made concerning the feature of the corrosion protection and third-party interference affecting the integrity. In some cases, e.g. trenchless pipe laying, an additional mechanical protection made of fiber cement or glass fiber reinforced plastic (grp) could be mandatory. The three mill coating systems are accompanied by an increased number of field joint coating (fjc) or field-applied systems. This can be explained by the fact, that there must be com- patible field-applied systems for all mill coatings being used during the last 100 years. For example, bituminous systems have been used till the mid of the seventies as standard. Therefore, an estimated 50 % of the German pipelines are coated with bitumen. 1.3. Field joint coatings Fjc and Field aPPlied coatings resPectively corrosion protection effect third-party influences affecting the integrity influencing parameter requirement Water Oxygen Electrolyte stray current loading / transport / storage / handling and installation: • hit • point load • shear forces • sun light • compaction of the bedding/the soil low water vapor permeability low oxygen permeability impermeable for ions high electric resistivity impact resistance indentation resistance peel strength shear strength UV-resistance Operation • movement in the soil • high operation temperature • aggressive soil • bacteria in the soil adhesion and shear strength persistent versus thermal and oxida- tive aging chemical persistence microbiological persistence Table 1: coating requirements Coatings are classified into mill coatings that are ap- plied in the plant, and field joint coatings or field-ap- plied coatings, that are applied on-site. The distinction is not only reasoned by the place of the application but also the different technical capabilities as well as different environmental conditions during the applica- tion. This causes various compositions of the coatings and leads in general to a less resistant field joint coat- ing or field applied coating with respect of mechanical and thermal influences. The classification oft he field-applied coatings is usually based upon the application process and results in cold-applied and hot-applied systems as well as spray applied or painted sys- tems, e.g. polyurethane or epoxy resin (see Figure 1). In the case of the cold applied and hot applied materials the requirements are described in the DIN 30672 and DIN EN 12068. The normative PUR require- ments for field joints or field-applied coatings do not differ from those for mill coatings, i.e. DIN EN 10290 (pipes, pipe fittings and valves) and DIN 30677-2 respectively (fittings). field joint coatings and field-applied coatings cold-applied system hot-applied systems spray application e.g. PUR petrolatum tapes bituminous tapes polymeric tapes heat shrinkables Figure 1: classification of field joint coatings fjc and field applied coatings respectively
10 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY In the past field-applied coatings were considered to be the “weak points” of the whole corrosion protection sys- tem. In the case of the cold-applied polymeric tapes, that has been used by the Ruhrgas AG as fjc for more than 30 years successfully, this point of view was disproved im- pressively . The detailed analysis of the internal inspec- tion results of ca. 2.000 km pipeline displayed, proper application assumed, no indications of a higher corrosion probability when using cold applied polymeric tapes as fjc compared to the mill coating. 1.4. Quality control – historical develoPMent Although a quality philosophy was linked to production of goods in the middle age the situation drastically changed with the beginning of the industrialization. From now on a lack of well qualified workers limited the productivity. In the context of industrial processes a separation of produc- tion and control of the products was established. Later on the consciousness became accepted, to generate quality, not to control it. In this age such famous names as Bosch, Krupp, Daimler, Siemens or Ford set the benchmarks. After world war II the Japanese industry developed an enhanced way together with the famous US Deming and Juran such that quality became an essential task of the manage- ment. One highlight of this development is the undoubted impressive way of Toyota, see The Toyota way , to the world´s largest car manufacturer. Incited by this also in Europe the realization enters that quality starts in the mar- keting, draft as well as the construction phase. Today, it is generally accepted, that a consequent quality strategy is a determining factor of the success of a com- pany . Or in other words, a wrong planning, an ineffi- cient control and communication, a lack motivation and responsibility as well as nonobservance of the require- ments lead to a flop. • Deviation of coating material use from specification • • Inaccurate application (minor thickness, wrong sys- tem setup) Irregular application parameters (temperature, humid- ity, dust, dirt) • Damage during transport and pipe handling For several years, it has been observed that anomalies in coating systems affect the long life quality expectance for a pipeline system and may lead in the worst case to pipeline integrity-relevant impacts. As part of the pipeline operation and maintenance work, coating defects are generally de- tected using over the line techniques (e.g. close holiday de- tection). Investments for excavation and repair of previously detected coating defects are cost-effective and measures to reduce these costs have been discussed widely. Health, Safety, environmental protection and quality are for Open Grid Europe GmbH, the former Ruhrgas AG, of significant importance and pari passu part of corporate policy and corporate objectives. In recent years, and also continuously extensive efforts have been made the subject of health, safety, environmental protection and quality of Open Grid Europe GmbH to improve steadily. Open Grid Europe GmbH has a fully integrated manage- ment system in the area of health, safety, environmental protection, quality and technical safety. There is also a special focus placed on new pipeline projects. In order to implement a further improvement in the quality assurance of the passive corrosion protection on new pipeline projects, a monitoring concept for pipeline projects has been developed within Open Grid Europe, comprising the steps of material manufacturing, delivery and installation. The example of the implementation of the new pipeline Loop Sannerz-Rimpar (LSR) and the ad- vanced quality assurance of the passive corrosion protec- tion by coating inspectors are presented in the following. 2. ASPECTS OF QUALITY CONTROL OF COATINGS IN PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION 2.2. concePtion 2.1. historical background Coating systems of buried steel pipelines are at risk to damage from time of fabrication to transport, site-storage, pipe laying, backfilling and during operation of the pipe- line. This implies transport- and distribution pipelines as well as compressor-, pumping- and metering stations. These coating deficiencies are of different character and may occur during different phases of the application process. The key failures are: • Improper mixture of two component systems (epoxy, polyurethane) Incorrect manually operated surface cleaning basical- ly in the field • – coating insPector and Quality benchMark The two key aspects of the conception are firstly quality benchmark/thresholds that are to be fulfilled and second- ly exclusively trained personnel – coating inspectors CI’s-, experts that control, test and document all coating quality relevant parameters. Referring to the 1st conception part, the coating quality is checked by several test methods during pipeline con- struction. A widely used and technically easy applicable testing of coating quality is the high-voltage test “holiday test”, which is carried out before the pipeline stretches are lifted into the trench. After backfilling is completed and sufficient ground contact has been achieved, current drainage tests were
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 11 executed sectionwise, the current demand was recorded and the average coating resistance rco in [Ωxm²] was calculated. A threshold value1 of 108 Ωxm² has to be fulfilled to demonstrate a coating defect free pipeline section . These drainage tests were carried out on all water pressure test sections and additionally on trenchless laid pipeline parts. For those sections the criterion could not be met, defects were searched using the close holiday detection technique. The 2nd part of quality method is the elaboration of coating inspectors that focus their supervision activities exclusively on the coating quality. Raising the question how these personnel is selected, it was considered that they could be either contracted as external consultants especially for the pipeline construc- tion or are ‘trained on the job’ for the specific work by Open Grid Europe itself. Open Grid Europe decided to educate for this specific field the CI’s ‘in-house’ because a subcontracted expert from the pipelaying contractor was not found to be independent enough in his ability of judgments. The in-house training of the CI’s has been executed by the Competence Center of Corrosion Protection at Open Grid Europe, comprising classroom- and practical exer- cises and was started such early, that factory coating expediting could be implemented. Detailed checklists for the coating quality tests have been developed and test equipment has been supplied (e.g. holiday tester, thickness- and hardness gauges). The main working tasks that have been in the responsibil- ity of CI’s were the following: • • • • • Planning and executing preproduction and expe- diting activities of any coated or painted pipes, pipe fittings and valves in factory Planning, executing, supervising and documenting the personnel prequalification of contracted field applied coating companies prior to start of pipeline construction. Checking quality, ability and specification confor- mity of all field coatings/paintings and accordance with purchase documents Performing any quality income inspection on pipes, pipe fittings and valves that came from factory and are stored on site Random testing and documenting of factory- and field coatings/paintings of pipes, pipe fittings and valves (on site and factory) Phoenix LiDAR AMSTERDAM 8-10 APRIL 2019 UAS FOR PROCESS, POWER & UTILITIES Register by 15 February to save 100€! expouav.com/europe Visit the exhibits for free! Commercial UAV Expo Europe is focused on commercial UAS integration and operation and attracts a global audience of drone professionals. With top-notch education, unparalleled networking and an exhibit floor of best-in-class class drones and systems, it’s the one event on the calendar process, power and utilities professionals shouldn’t miss. Mon 8 April: Pre-Conference & Workshop Programming / 13:00 – 18:00 (No Exhibits) Tues 9 April & Wed 10 April: Conference Programming & Exhibits KEYNOTE Global Industry Update and European Marketing Outlook for 2019 and Beyond. Plenaries: • Smart Cities & Urban Air Mobility • Safety, Security & Counter Drone Technology • Disruptive UAV Technologies + PLUS: Deep Dive Conference and End-User Roundtable on Energy & Utilities Join professionals from organizations like these*: + • Austrian Power Grid (Austria) • Baker Hughes, a GE Company (United Kingdom) • Distributie Energie Oltenia (Romania) • Eles (Slovenia) • Elia (Belgium) • Engie (Belgium) • Eni (Italy) • EniProgetti (Italy) • Deutsche Telekom AG (Germany) • North Caspian Operating Company N.V. (Kazakhstan) • Statnett (Norway) *Sample of 2018 attending organizations Produced by Diversiﬁed Communications
12 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY • • • • Planning, executing, supervising and documenting the coatings/paintings quality on pipes, pipe fittings and valves in the field. This also implies carrying out destructive and nonde- structive testing on a random basis. Quality checks and testing cover all pipe parts but especially trenchless laid sections like thrust- or auger bored, micro-tunneling, horizontal direct drilling or pipes that are laid inside metallic casings Checking and approving the docu- mentation prepared by coating/paint- ing contractors Checking and approving the docu- mentation of any current drainage tests carried out on pipeline sections Claiming any occurring deficiency, flaws an defects towards the involved contractor 3. EXAMPLE FROM PRACTICE – COATING INSPECTOR ON LOOP SANNERZ-RIMPAR 3.1. PiPeline Project - looP sannerz-riMPar In order to provide additional transport capacity or the expansion of existing capacity, the natural gas transmission pipeline from Sannerz in Hessen to Rimpar in Bavaria was built in 2012. Figure 3: working strip and welded pipeline section Figure 2: line course LSR pipeline The construction of this line is based on the Open Season process 2008/2009 carried out by Open Grid Europe in which by querying market participants in the future transport requirements have been identified. The route has been widely published as so-called “Loop” parallel to an existing natural gas transmission pipeline of Open Grid Europe. The natural gas transmission LSR has a transport capacity of around 1.5 million cubic meters of natural gas per hour. It is about 67 kilometers long, running from Sannerz about 10 km in Hessen and 57 km in Bavaria to Rimpar (see Figure 2 and Figure 3).
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 13 For this purpose, a total of over 3800 pipes, each with a 40’’ diameter (DN 1000), about 18 m in length and about 7.5 t weight were moved. The total weight of the tubes is about 28000 tons. The pipeline is designed for an operat- ing pressure of up to 100 bar and pro- tected against corrosion by polyethylene (PE) coating. The 67 km long loop pipeline system Sannerz-Rimpar was divided into 2 lots. Coating works for each lot were super- vised by a CI (see Figure 4 and Figure 5). All CI’s verifications and supervision activities have been accompanied by the Competence Center Corrosion Protection and by the main pipeline supervisor. 3.2. results and conclusion All observation and quality control activi- ties have been reported. A total number of 122 reports have been written (see Table 2). 66% have shown positive results with no claimable outcome. The coating quality statistic on 42 inspected faults/defects can be summa- rized as follows: • • • 16% of observed discrepancies were due to mechanical damage where- as 42% of these defects are caused during grid welding due to inaccurate deposition of welding equipment on the adjacent factory coating of the pipe ends 14% were poor or non-specification conform paintings / coatings. 94% belong to faults and non-conform mixing ratios of polyurethane coating of pipe fittings and valves 5% refer to damage caused during transport and 90% have been detect- ed on transported valves and pipe fittings Figure 4: destructive testing –peel resistance on cold applied PE/butyl rubber fjc Figure 5: coating damage during transport at valve support A very good impression of the general effectiveness of quality control established by the CI’s work could Number of Inspection Reports No observation Mechanical damage Poor painting / coating application Transport damage 122 80 19 17 6 100% 66% 16% 14% 5% Table 2: Number of reports and percentile distribution of findings be derived when the drainage tests carried out on pressure tested pipeline sections (DPA) of loop Sannerz-Rimpar compared to a second loop pipeline, which has been constructed at the same period in the South of Germany. Both pipelines have the same diameter but the loop benchmark was not super- vised by CI’s.
14 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY Loop San- nerz-Rimpar rco [Ωxm²] Loop benchmark DPA 1 DPA 2 DPA 3 DPA 4 DPA 5 1,8 x108 DPA 1 2,3 x108 DPA 2 3,1 x108 DPA 3,4,5,6,7 1,6 x108 DPA 8 1,6 x108 DPA 9 DPA 8-1 2,2 x108 DPA 10 DPA 11 rco [Ωxm²] 5 x108 0,2 x108 0,8 x108 0,2 x108 0,06 x108 0,2 x108 0,2 x108 Table 3: summary of drainage tests carried out on pressure test pipelines sections (DPA = water pressure test section) Table 3 summarizes the results of drainage tests per- formed on both loop pipelines which allow a quality related assessment of the CI work effectiveness. Drainage tests on the supervised pipeline all fulfilled the criterion for rco. No further coating quality measures were necessary. For the benchmark loop pipeline the result is complete- ly different. With the exception of one test section, the threshold criterion of the drainage test readings was not met. All pressure test sections (excluding DPA 1) with a length of 60 km had to be checked for defects using laborious close holiday detection. From this outcome, it can be concluded, that the CI work has a general significant effect on increasing the coating quality for the pipeline supervised. Open Grid Europe has decided in this way to supervise all larger pipeline proj- ects by CI’s. Following this decision, Open Grid Europe started training CI’s especially for quality control activities of coatings / paintings in buried / aboveground struc- tures of compressor- and metering stations. Footnotes 1 A criterion of rco ≥ 108 Ωxm² was added to the DVGW worksheets No. 12, 20 and 28 to verify a defect free pipeline coating system. References        Presseinformation vom 21.04.2011 der DECHEMA e.V. zum Weltkorrosionstag am 26.04.2011 M. Ahlers, M. Brecht, H.G. Schöneich, 3 R International, Special Edition 2/2007, 49 Long term experience with corrosion protection performance of field joint coatings Jeffrey K. Liker, the Toyota Way, 2004 by McGraw-Hill G. Benes, P. Groh, Grundlagen des Qualitätsmanagements, 2012 Fachbuchverlag Leipzig DVGW Worksheet No. 12: Planung und Einrichtung des kathodischen Korrosions- schutzes (KKS) für erdverlegte Lagerbehälter und Stahlrohrleitungen (10/2010) DVGW Worksheet No. 20: Kathodischer Korrosionsschutz in Mantelrohren im Kreu- zungsbe- reich mit Verkehrswegen Produktrohre aus Stahl im Vortriebsverfahren (02/2014) DVGW Worksheet No. 28: Beurteilung der Korrosionsgefährdung durch Wechselstrom bei kathodisch geschützten Stahlrohrleitungen und Schutzmaßnahmen (04/2013) 53 Authors Dr. Thomas Löffler DENSO Business and Engineering Development email@example.com Andre Graßmann Open Grid Europe Project Management Pipeline Technologies andre.grassmann@open-grid- The schedule and quality guaranteeing work of the inspec- tors became an integral part of Open Grid Europe’s overall expediting strategy for plant and mill coating industry. europe.com The developing necessity to contract professional CI’s expertise and implement them in projects, expanded in Germany since then so vigorous, that a standard is drafted and published shortly by a DVGW (the German Gas and Water Association) committee. Its general scope is to describe in detail the skills and qualification as well as the duties and responsibilities of coating inspectors, working in future for the pipeline industry. With this nor- mative acceptance the relevance and importance of the coating inspector is highly increased. Hilmar Jansen Open Grid Europe Head of Engineering - Centre of Competence Corrosion Protection hilmar.jansen@open-grid- europe.com
14TH PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE 18-21 MARCH 2019, BERLIN, GERMANY Europe’s Leading pipeline conference & exhibition 800+ DELEGATES 80+ EXHIBITORS 50+ DIFFERENT NATIONS DELEGATIONS FROM 70+ DIFFERENT PIPELINE OPERATORS Diamond Sponsor Platinum Sponsors origin of pipeline operators attending ptc Golden Sponsors Silver Sponsors www.pipeline-conference.com
THE KEY OF SAFETY AND RELIABLE OPERATION IS THE PIPELINE INTEGRITY - MAIN ELEMENTS AND IMPORTANCE OF PIPELINE INTEGRITY Ferenc Peterfalvi > MOL ABSTRACT In the recent years, the “integrity” issue has become a popular topic with pipeline operators and the development companies. Generally, it means the use of more advanced diagnostics tools, the corrective interventions that are based on the results and advanced SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) application. The advanced technical aspect is indispensable. Nevertheless, effective pipeline integrity has further “soft” elements: operational knowledge and capabilities (including the competencies of the staff, emergency drills and other traditional surveillance and safety methods. This article outlines the relevance and importance of the topic and presents the main elements of pipe- line integrity, highlighting the social expectations on MOL Hungary (Hungarian Oil and Gas Co) and its high-pressure liquid pipeline operational area. “Where is the balance – if exist at all with- out risk – between “Safety First” and the fact that operation is driven by financial outcomes? Ferenc Peterfalvi
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 17 INTRODUCTION MOL Hungary is operating 805 km of crude oil pipelines and 1250 km product (different types of fuels, special products – virgin naphtha, aromatics, FAME) pipelines. The diameter ranges between 6”-24”, permitted pressure is 63 bar for the total system. The average age is over 40 years, so the operator has to face the issue of aging pipe- lines. Intelligent tools for diagnostics have been applied from the mid 1990s, and the procedure is periodically repeated every 5-6 years. The rehabilitation plans are made based on the diagnos- tics results. The number of defect spots increases with age. So far two pipelines had to be replaced; one of them was the oldest pipeline built in 1962 for crude. The other was a virgin naphtha pipeline, whose replacement was due to the corrosive effects of the transported fluid. The first generation of leak detection system (LDS) was in use from the end of 1990s along the product pipe- lines. In the previous years, the situation was critical due to the high number of 3rd party interventions. Since then, LDS has been developed on both (product and crude) systems so the number of external interven- tions gradually decreased. Striving for excellence currently a special software solu- tion for Pipeline Integrity Management System (PIMS) is being implemented. In parallel with the developments, it is necessary to increase the organizational skills and capabilities of per- sonnel as well. In Hungary, there are no harsh environmental conditions, so there is no need to calculate for natural disasters. Still the operator has been faced with formidable challenges. Figure 1 provide a map of MOL high-pressure liquid hydro- carbon pipelines. WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? There can be more approaches to evaluate the role of pipeline integrity; here the relevance and importance of this issue are highlighted from operational and business aspects. Finally, yet significantly, it has regard for the higher ex- pectations and sensibilities of society. OPERATIONAL RELEVANCY The expectation of business management is the high availability rate of the pipelines and calculable, scheduled transportation. By using advanced SCADA systems, surprises can be avoided during operation. The applied SCADA consists of four modules; process control, LDS, excise product accounting and batch tracking. The latter two are part of the product pipe- line system, as fuels are under Excise Duty Law and the system has to meet the legal criteria. The basic method of Leak Detection System is PWM (pressure wave method), complemented with PDM (pressure drop method), VBM (volume balance method) and RTTM (real time transient method). Details: . The actual breaks-offs in the operation are during the reconstruction works (based on the pigging results), which are well planned also for the sched- uler and stock manage- ment team. It is nearly 1-1.5 % of the total yearly oper- ation time together with some 3rd party interven- tions (1-2 cases/year in the last 10 years) which can be intentional or unintentional (for example, an attempt to steal product or backhoe activity). In these situa- tions we should consider other integrity elements: the emergency response preparedness (see later). Figure 1: Crude oil and product pipelines in Hungary
18 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY In certain business circumstances, another business ex- pectation is the capacity flexibility. Generally, the operator uses DRA (Drag Reducing Agent) which can lead up to 30 % capacity increase, and/or uses more pumps. The latter are mainly characteristics of the crude transportation. Naturally, DRA additivation systems in different locations are also part of SCADA. BUSINESS AS USUAL? The smooth and reliable pipeline operation is the major part of business expectations. In a balanced logistics system, each mode of transportation has its own, well-de- fined role; pipeline, barge, rail and road transportation. (As Hungary is a land-lock country, barge means river naviga- tion along the Danube.) The final goal is to serve the “the customers”, whether internal or external customers both in the requested time and in the quantity ordered. In general, with a decrease in the quantity delivered the sharing of end-users increases. Practically all the receiv- ers are accessible by road, so product transported by road has the most end-users (Retail and Wholesale customers). Nevertheless, the specific cost (EUR/tons/km) of road transport is app 7-8 times of the pipeline specific cost. The next important aspects are the HSE (Health, Safety and Environment) risks (including fatalities); the order is similar to the specific cost: pipeline<barge<rail<road with essential differences. mand should be transported by road. In many cases, this is not implemented in such places/receivers where the technical conditions are not available. This issue at first glance seems complicated, but behind the scenes there is usually some kind of organizational sub-optimum, or short-term financial interest. The next sensitive area, which partly leads to the social topic as well, is a real trap. Because of social “pressure”, all companies have, beyond definition of mission and vision, public declarations about HSE policy, social responsibility, including so- cial effects, commitment to sustainable development, etc., and the annual reports are accompanied by these relevant reports. However, certain effects, either exter- nal or internal circumstances: economic crisis, change of business environment, short-term financial interest, change of company priorities etc., can make the declara- tions appear shallow unless continuous efforts are made to maintain the pipeline integrity. CASE STUDY The described accident is not unique and is not directed against anybody or any legal entity. All related informa- tion was public and available by anybody. On May 19, 2015, Plains All-American (PAA) pipeline ruptured and an estimated 2934 barrels of crude oil was released on land and beaches, and into the Pacific Ocean, in Santa Barbara County, California. The PHMSA (Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration) Failure Investigation Report (May 2016)  found that the integrity elements were violated in several points. Just to recite the entries: From sustainability aspect (including greenhouse gases), the greatest possible part of the transportation demand is to be transported by pipe (and barge), which is possible, the remaining demand is to be transported by rail, which is also possible, and finally just what remains from the de- • • • Ineffective protection against external corrosion of the pipeline Failure by Plains to detect and mitigate the corrosion Lack of timely detection of and response to the rupture Figure 2 shows the location of spillage, Fig- ure 3 is one of the first photos of the release location after removal from the ditch. . Just the immediate cost for PAA of dam- age compensation and control — typically clean-up of oil on beaches — was $69 million within 3 weeks after the event. In addition, there was the cost of the extend- ed diagnostics examinations, pipeline reconstruction works, etc. A PAA spokesman said to the public: We are committed to the thorough clean-up of this accident. But let us look at what this “commitment” was on declaration level. Figure 2: Spill location in Santa Barbara County
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 19 between “Safety First” and the fact that operation is driv- en by financial outcomes? Summarizing the losses at an extraordinary event: Î Î Direct fluid loss (crude, product, etc.) Cost of damage control, repairing and rehabilitation works, extraordinary and unplanned examinations Punishment, indemnification and compensation, pro- cedural and regulatory costs Lost business opportunities Reputational losses, immediate and long-term effects Î Î Î SOCIETAL EXPECTATIONS In the last 10 years, there has been paradigm shift in thinking about energy in the developed countries and especially in Europe. After protracted discussion, there is now abundant evidence that climate change is a one-way process. The alternative or renewable energy sources - mainly solar and wind energy -are explosively spreading. The Paris climate convention’s objectives are challenging, but as was pointed out, the consequences of continuing the “business as usual“ scenario in the world economy are catastrophic in the foreseeable future. Figure 4 shows the current primary energy world consumption . It can be seen that the dominating energy source is fossil in origin and within this nomenclature crude is the major one. Figure 3: The failed pipe and surrounding insulation and coating “Plains All American Pipeline and its affiliates adhere to high standards of environmental quality and are commit- ted to providing a workplace that protects the health and safety of our employees and the communities surround- ing our facilities. In order to achieve this objective, Plains strives to integrate safety into its business planning and decision-making process. We believe this will enhance and promote the protection of our employees, the people who live, work and play in the vicinity of our assets, and the environment while increasing value for our stakeholders. … In fulfillment of this commitment, Plains strives to: … Assess potential environmental, health or safety concern prior to the sale, lease, transfer or purchase of property. Establish appropriate design, construction, operating, and, maintenance program and practices to minimize risks, reduce releases and waste, increase energy efficiency, and conserve natural re- sources. Establish programs to analyse and mitigate risks, investigate significant environmental and safety incidents, and prepare for and respond to emergencies” . What does “business as usual” mean? It is a good question, in gener- al; what is the match or over- lap between the declaration level and the daily practice at the pipeline operators? Where is the balance – if it exists at all without risk - Figure 4: Primary energy world consumption
20 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY The EU’s long term policy target is a low carbon economy by 2050, and it means, among other things, decreasing liq- uid fossil fuel consumption. Nevertheless, at present liquid fossil fuel consumption is still growing worldwide. As the oil price has moved upwards after Y2017, the investment interests of oil companies have also increased. At present, less than 20 % of the world runs on renewable energy. It is conceivable that transport can work without carbon-based fuels but the petrochemical industry cannot. Approximate- ly 95 % of our everyday products/objects contain carbon. Nevertheless, the EU has made a strong commitment to re- duce the quantity of different petrochemical products, the first sign of which is the ban of plastics bags and straws. Without the current and extensive hydrocarbon pipeline systems, it is impossible to maintain the current stan- dard of living in the developed countries. We as pipe- line operators know this very well. At the same time we must acknowledge that the general public is much more responsive and sensitive to all types of havaria/extraordi- nary events than a few years ago. Maintaining pipeline integrity is the indispensable oper- ational philosophy and “tool” for minimizing the opera- tional risks. All elements of integrity are important since we know that the weakest part determines the strength of the entire system. The other essential issue is the penetration rate of elec- tricity-based mobilization in the future. Potential threats to pipelines  The predictions of highly appreciated national and in- ternational organizations and scientific institutions are fairly diverse. It is sure that long years will be required to change the transport vehicles; in addition, further techni- cal development is necessary to increase the electricity storage, to build the electricity network and to secure en- ergy supply. On one hand the penetration rate is essential for the future of oil industry, on the other hand let us not forget the adaptability of the oil industry, which has been highly proven in the last 100 years. Nevertheless, such high expectations, sometimes exag- gerated, to change fossil fuels into renewable ones have never been met. The European general public considers the traditional fuels as “dirty” energy. Big cities make decisions to ban diesel cars (as a consequence of VW scandal) or to ban diesel and gasoline cars (Oslo) after middle term periods. Unfortunately, there is less focus on other significant sources of carbon-dioxide and particu- late matters, including the most dangerous PM 2.5 and PM 10; such as industry, non-road transport, agriculture, commerce, households, waste, etc. Anyway, now it seems that only higher electric car pen- etration and more sustainable energy production can ensure compliance with emission targets. In these circumstances the oil companies are demonstrat- ing that their activities are environmentally friendly during the total supply chain, there are no or minimal risks in the operation of upstream, downstream, the logistics and distribution processes. Demonstrating their transformation into low carbon world, they highlight their investments in and develop- ment of the renewable sector, typically participating in building recharging stations for electric cars and renew- able energy farms. • Stable threats - Manufacturing-related defects (defective pipe seam, defective pipe). • • - Welding/fabrication-related (defective pipe girth weld, defective fabrication weld, wrinkle bend or buckle, stripped threads/broken pipe/coupling failure). - Equipment (gasket, O-ring failure, control/relief equipment malfunction, seal/pump packing failure, miscellaneous). Time-dependent threats - External corrosion. - Internal corrosion. - Stress corrosion cracking. Time-independent threats - Third party/mechanical damage (damage inflicted by first, second, or third parties (instantaneous/im- mediate failure), previously damaged pipe (delayed failure mode), vandalism). - Incorrect operation (incorrect operational procedure). - Weather-related and external force (cold weather, lightning, heavy rain or flood, earth movements). For all elements of this list there is by now detailed pro- fessional literature available in many resolutions within the issues. Just to mention one of them, the most relevant manufac- turing - related defects are the following . • Plate defects - Segregation is concentration of non-metallic mate- rial in the mid-wall position - Indentation is depression on the pipe surface - Laminations are internal metal separation creating layers - Silvers are thin, elongated flaps of metal rolled onto the plate surface - Inclusions are non-metallic inclusions in the plate wall Also part of the politics of social responsibility are their sponsorships and many volunteering contributions to “sensitive” social areas. • Seamless pipe defects - Typical seamless pipe defects are laps, silvers and rolling marks. Furthermore, linear surface defects
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 21 (e.g. quench cracks) can occur on the inner and outer surface as single events or in group. could improve the situation, but the willingness to do so is rather different . • ERW pipe defects - ERW (Electric Resistance Welded) pipe defects are often related to the longitudinal ERW weld. - Seam overtrim, seam undertrim, seam misplaced trim - Aligned inclusion - Lack of fusion SAW (Submerged Arc Welding)/Spiral pipe defects - Hot cracks are solidification cracks in the centre line of the weld bead. They tend to occur around the end of pipe in the last metal solidity. Grindings - Pipes can be repaired by grinding within the wall • • thickness tolerances. • Mechanical damage - Mechanical damages are typically gouges and dents. They are irregular scores and gouging of the metal surface, which may be occur within a dent. The category of stable threats contains lot of traps. Unfortunately, only one part of them can be investigated with diagnostics tools, the other part comes decades later into a critical state that causes havaria (as the system is known in Hungary)/emergency situations. This could be, for example, due to the existing non-metallic intrusion in the weld caused by leaks and spills. Keeping the equipment in good and reliable condition can be ensured by preventive maintenance. In Europe, over the last couple of years the number of 3rd party interventions has risen sharply, mainly in West- ern-European countries . It seems the Eastern-Euro- pean countries are “more quiet” in this regard, at least the members of the EU. The reaction is not the same, but the common trend is tightening of law, more effective authority support, more sensitive and reliable (also more expensive) leak detection systems, more and more effec- tive supervision. The aim is faster response to sensibly increase the risk for the perpetrators; moreover, the later a leak is discov- ered, the more money is lost. As one can see, the threats to pipelines are important. There are a relatively high number of accidental, typically incidental damages but still far fewer cases than inten- tional damages (theft or theft attempt). Most of these events are caused by direct damage from some form of digging and earth moving activities (digging, trenching, bulldozing, drilling, agricultural activities, etc.). Generally, when better communication has been estab- lished between the pipeline operator and a 3rd party company, it does help but not always enough. Sometimes the necessary communication chain is broken. When the actual work begins, the actual machinery operator may The category of time-depen- dent threats is the typical area of the increasingly developed and constantly developing diagnostics tools (ILI tools). Figure 5 shows the technolo- gies of inline inspection, and Figure 6 shows the grouping of different defects . Recently the category of time-independent threats has been the biggest challenge for the pipeline operators. In some regions of the world the 3rd party interventions cause significant environmental damage and often involve fires and fatalities as well (Mexico, Brazil, Nigeria). Only the joint and coordinat- ed actions of the legislature, authorities and operators Figure 5: Inline Inspection technologies Figure 6: ILI grouping for different defects
22 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY not be aware of the pipeline at all, or the pipeline’s track. In the majority of the countries, based on high-level state rule, the 3rd party company has to notify the pipeline operator about these works in advance. In Hungary, MOL supports and gives continuous technical supervision to these high-risk works (road, highway, rail crossing, etc.). Figure 7 shows the consequences of serious damage to crude pipeline caused by agricultural activity. (It has been the biggest damage in the last 20 years.) Further special attention needs to be paid to aging pipe- lines. Most of the world’s pipelines are over 40 years old. In Europe 64 % are over 40 years and only 4 % of the total is 10 years old or less. . The situation is the same in Hungary. Naturally, along the aging pipelines, as time passes corro- sion accelerates. But the old status does not necessarily mean that there is significant deterioration or damage. It is increasingly important to define bespoke integrity level for these pipe- lines and to operate with those principles. In Europe, based on the Concawe 1971-2016 incident da- tabase, there is no evidence that the aging of the pipeline system implies a greater risk of spillage . It means that responsible thinking and operation is a long-term practice with European operators. Continuous monitoring and diagnostics examination (ILI tools) with predefined frequency ensure failures can be prevented, i.e., it the weaknesses can be spotted before they lead to errors. These inspection methods together with bespoke integ- rity management system are able to prevent any increase of age-related spillages. Based on Concawe grouping  the following factors can lead to faulty performance —beyond corrosion (internal, external, stress) and external interventions. • Mechanical - Construction • Faulty weld • Construction damage • Incorrect installation - Design and materials • Incorrect design • Faulty material • Incorrect material specification • Age or fatigue • Operational - System • Equipment • Instrument and control system - Human • Not depressurized or drained • Incorrect operation • Incorrect maintenance or construction • Incorrect procedure The industry should strive to transfer the vast experiences and knowledge of the pipeline operation area through generations. It is not inconceivable that we will operate 100-year-old pipelines. TECHNICAL ELEMENTS OF INTEGRITY Field oPeration devices and instruMents It is important that the condition of all types of these de- vices and instruments including IT-related infrastructure and measuring system must be continuously monitored and reliably maintained so that their functions be kept (transmitter, switch detector, fitting, etc.). Reliability, sen- sitivity, accuracy and robust- ness are the most important aspects in their selection be- sides price, implementation and maintenance costs. It is also indispensable in today’s world, that the data transfer system is put into operation after a successful cyber se- curity audit, which should be repeated on a regular basis. SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system) Generally, a SCADA system has four functions • Data acquisition • Network data communi- cation Figure 7: Consequence of crude pipeline damage in Hungary, 2002
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 23 • Data presentation • Control (automatic intervention is also possible) The main components that provide the functions • • • • Sensors and control relays Remote telemetry units (RTU) serve as local collection points for gathering data from sensors and delivering com- mand to control relays SCADA master units provide a human interface to the system and automati- cally regulate the system in response to sensor inputs Communication network provides the connection between SCADA master unit and RTUs in the fields Figure 8: MOL Product pipeline dispatcher centre In the selection and construction processes reliability, sen- sitivity, accuracy and robustness are also important criteria. Today there are a lot of integrity software solutions avail- able on the market. The primary goal of MOL Pipeline Operation was to imple- ment an integrated management system, able to support Hungarian product and crude pipeline maintenance-relat- ed planning, simulation, risk assessment along with the help of more advanced modeling methods and by using a more complex set of information as the basis of the calculations. Further aims were that the system should be subject to audit (either external, by the authorities, or internal), well structured, should have good visualization capability and support the operator in day-to-day work. Finally, by the end of the implementation it was also im- portant to eliminate all paper-based documentations and digitally integrate them into the system (including P&ID or right of way contracts, etc.). In the pilot phase MOL experts worked together with the contractor (approximately 10 % of the total system), and thereafter they have continued the work independently (with remote support if it was needed). In Figure 9 MOL integrity system architecture can be seen. MOL product pipeline SCADA system consists of four main modules with many sub functions. • • • • Technological process control and monitoring Batch tracking application (MOL system is used to transport batches of various semi-finished and finished products sequentially without the use of seg- regation elements by so-called “direct contacting”. Excise product accounting application (Transported products/fuels are under Excise Duty Law.) Leak detection system MOL crude pipeline SCADA is similar but without batch tracking and excise product application. At the present time, our industry should prepare for the fourth generation SCADA architecture IoT (Internet of Things, Industry 4.0). Figure 8 shows MOL product pipeline dispatcher centre with the SCADA surface which was put into operation in 2016. INTEGRITY SYSTEM (PIMS-PIPELINE INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM) Generally, the primary concern of pipeline operators is to ensure continuous, safe and reliable operation while improving asset integrity and operational efficiency. Operation is taking place amid increasing demand, higher energy costs, potential security threats, and both regula- tory and environmental pressures. Integrity is the application of selected engineering and management disciplines to ensure that a pipeline performs in accordance with its appropriate and intended functions. Figure 9: System architecture
24 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY a short suMMary oF the Modules’ Functions data ManageMent Alignment Manager Loading, alignment and management integ- rity related data, which can be displayed in map views and as band along the length of the pipeline. Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) It integrates data from various MOL sources into the centralized PODS (Pipeline Open Data Standard) database. integrity ManageMent rehabilitation Risk Assessment It evaluates threats and consequences along the entire pipeline network, compares risk outcomes to optimize and prioritize mainte- nance and inspection spending, and identifies areas of potential and immediate concern. Feature Assessment It rapidly assesses the criticality of features identified during in-line inspections regard- less of the inspection vendor used. This module also applies corrosion growth rates as a basis to develop term repair plans. Geospatial Analysis It visualizes and analyses all the integrity related data in a geographical context. Alignment Analysis All distance based data, whether external or from another module, can be viewed and aligned allowing further analysis and deter- mination of possible root causes. Corrosion Analyst It calculates corrosion rates by comparing two ILI runs. Cathodic Protection Analyst All CP data can be viewed and analyzed giving insight into the actual condition of system performance along a pipeline. Stress Analyst The module calculates bending strain per- spectives using GPS/GYRO/trajectory data to detect bends, which could have been cre- ated by earthquake, thermal expansion, etc. Spillage Assessment This module supports the process of esti- mated spill amount after a pipeline rupture. Task Manager The entire repair process can be managed within this module. TM combines risk- based actions, immediate repair tasks and planned maintenance schedule into a single integrity plan. Verification Manager It helps operators in the collection and anal- ysis of field measurements, making it easy to compare these against the reported de- fect sizes reported by the inspection vendor. In addition, a part of the system is the Management Dash- board - such a tool designed to summarize and display key data (e.g. KPIs) from the software. Figure 10 shows an example of the system visualization capability. TRACK SURVEILLANCE MOL operates more than 2000 km high-pressure liquid pipeline with numerous road, rail, river and utility cross- ings. We have more than 26000 properties’ right-of-way contracts. Hungarian state regulation describes exactly what the owners can do and what they can not do on the easement areas. Naturally, on such an extended network, something always happens. The majority of those who intend to work notify us and ask for our contribution, work condition or surveillance of the crossing work. Nev- ertheless, many owners tend to make irregular working attempts, for example, planting trees, making construc- tion initiatives or various materials’ deposits. MOL’s track surveillance consists of two parts. The main goal is prevention; timely detection and intervention.
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 25 Figure 10: Track of Adria pipeline near Lake Balafon with the soil types • Flight control twice a month. Our experienced colleagues fly and the following report with photos clearly shows where to intervene. (It should be noted here that in the recent years there have been two attempts to use drones. Unfortunately, this technique does not seem to be mature enough to change the traditional flight. It is a more complicated, involving a longer process and financially unmatch- able with the traditional flight.) • Walking control for all pipelines biweekly but with dif- ferent time periods completed by external contractor. Tasks are to detect subtle changes along the track, for example, theft preparation, such changes that are undetectable from the air. Correct and appropriate ap- plication of track surveillance methods is also a part of the integrated operation and spares the operator much annoyance. ORGANIZATION AND PROCESS RELATED ELEMENTS saFety ManageMent systeM FraMework The safety management system follows the well-known principles of the PDCA cycle. Main eleMents • Plan - Leadership, Policies - Organizational structure, rolls and responsibilities - Hazard identification and risk assessment - Regulatory requirements • Do - Goals and targets - Operational control - Management of change - Training, competence and evaluation Check - Communication - Measurement and monitoring - Incident investigation system/reporting • • Act - Records, management activity - Management review and audits A more detailed breakdown of the subject is beyond the scope of this article; just some typical topics are mentioned. MOL is strongly committed to continue the steady improvement of HSE (Health, Safety, and Environment) performance and process safety. There are many long-term HSE programs, actions and bespoke internal regulations, which are also part of the pipeline operation organization.
26 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY The two most important long-term programs are the following. PROGRAM ZERO is a project to achieve our vision zero, which means • • • • • • ZERO fatalities ZERO personal injuries ZERO process safety events ZERO serious road accidents ZERO harm on environment ZERO tolerance for unsafe behavior and practices To ensure strong, solid and safe processes, MOL imple- mented the DuPont model of Process Safety Manage- ment System (PSM). Figure 11 shows the elements of PSM. Some further programs that MOL has implemented in headlines: Log Out Tag Out (LOTO), Fall, Slip & Trip (FST). To increase the contractor safety for all critical works/processes it is mandatory to set up an approved HSE plan. The Job Safety Analysis (JSA) and the Last Minute Risk Analysis (LMRA) are also mandatory be- fore the works start. organization structure and coMPetency develoPMent guarding, etc.). The position of MOL in this question is on the opposite side. It is focusing on the operational area (except for a small group who are involved in the daily businesses of external stakeholders, typically related to right-of-way affairs). All other activities that are indispensable for the oper- ation from the organizational perspective are supply from external resources; all maintenance works are in SSC (Single Service Company) construction, planning and investment implementation are services provided by (MOL) Group, while the others are bought from the market typically after periodical tendering procedures. Under such operational conditions, the professional com- petence of company personnel is particularly important. Without high-level competencies a cost - effective but reliable operational practice would be impossible. The most simple definition of competency is the ability to do something well. This is a true and self-determined statement, but the next one says a little bit more; competency is a combination of thinking skills, knowledge and experience. It means the personal professional value consists of skills, knowl- edge and experience. There are different approaches to creating organizational structure. Some companies, like to keep everything in one hand beyond the operation (planning, certain types of construction, maintenance or IT system operation, This article is not about competency development, it only intends to emphasize the key role of competency devel- opment in the integrated approaches of operation. Naturally, these elements can be developed with different methods; training for skill, mentoring, tutoring to increase knowledge and spending long time in prac- tice to get experience. Within MOL there are many different types of training sessions and practices (focusing on HSE and process safety), but the pipeline organization has two bespoke and long-term training courses. • Pipeline operators’ training course involves a high number of hours and periodically repeated. It contains basic operation- al knowledge and practice with additional profes- sional background. The blue collar workers Figure 11: Elements of Process Safety Management System
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 27 • are the main focus group but it can be attended by white collars as well. The lecturers and task manag- ers are our own senior experts together with lecturers from authorities and universities. The course ends with an exam before the course committee. For a couple of years, MOL has also been a member of the PetroSkills Alliance. PetroSkills is a competen- cy based training provider for the Oil and Gas Indus- try. We have adapted the methodology, which begins with the individual competency map. The “measured” knowledge has four levels; awareness, fundamental, skilled and mastery. Based on the gap between the current and the required competency, the individual development plan is set up. The white collar high - level technicians are the main focus group. This way not only the competence level increases but also the career development that depends on it. A special challenge for the oil industry (the pipeline industry a major subset of this) is that we are operating aging pipelines with aging personnel, i.e., “aging” compe- tency owners (at least in Europe and North-America). At present, that high-level competency is at the older generations (baby boomers and generation x). The large number of baby boomers are slowly retiring on pension; the issue is there is no one to pass their knowledge to. The knowledge transfer, which was successful in the previous years, now does not work suitably. Oil industry is not too attractive for fresh graduates because of social expectations, low reputation, “dirty energy” approach. (See in chapter “Societal expectations”.) (United Kingdom Onshore Pipeline Operators Associ- ation) Pipeline Product Loss Incident and Fault Report (1962-2015) database. (As a reminder, PIMS, in chapter “Integrity system” also has a subtle risk assessment module (RA) highlight- ing high consequence areas, - with potential serious consequences.) IERP describes in a nut shell the different devices we use during the defense procedure and also the personnel structure, the likelihood of pipeline defects, hydrocarbon leakage at different rates and via different holes (6 mm, 50 mm and at total diameter), and fault tree analysis (FTA). From a practical aspect, we have two types of drills. One of them is the overall IERP drill, once a year, involvement of the majority of the pipeline organization is obligatory based on the state regulation and it is supervised by the authority (National Emergency Response Directorate). The other one is voluntary, also once a year, relating to every individual unit and focusing on the reaction to an extraor- dinary event, for example current outage. The IERP drill is based on a difficult incident scenario (a new one in every year) somewhere in the country. The action starts with an alarm to the dispatcher centre of the pipeline organization. The participants beyond the pipe- line organization are a professional refinery fire brigade with special capabilities, vehicles and instruments, exca- vating unit (contractor), mechanical (including welding) and technician units (contractor). After fulfillment, the drill is evaluated in every detail. A possible way to change is represented by the fresh example of Statoil. Statoil changed its name after 46 years to Equinor. Statoil / Equinor is strongly motivated to become a broadly-based energy firm, investing more and more in “new energy solutions”. It is also emphasized that they want to attract more young talented technicians from the universities . It also bears mentioning that the pipeline organization sustains a continuous preparedness unit from its own personnel who can be called from home in case of an extraordinary event. REGULATION AND SOCIAL BACKGROUND drills The next issue is preparing for different disaster situa- tions. Inappropriate reaction can worsen the situation very much, significantly increasing the financial losses, while quick and professional intervention can significant- ly mitigate the consequences. Based on the Hungarian state regulation the operator (MOL Pipeline Operation) has had to make (and regularly update) the Incident Emergency Response Plan (IERP) approved by the dedicated authority. For the IERP detailed analysis MOL used the methodology of British Standard PD 8010, and for authority request we did not use our own database for modeling events but we used UKOPA In Hungary a number of state regulations (or part of them) apply to pipeline operation but two of them have decisive effect on high-pressure pipelines. Act No. XLVIII of 1993 on Mining defines the legal frame- work of establishment, licensing, authorization, obliga- tions and operation. The other one is GKM decree No. 79/2005 (X.11) on the Safety Requirements for Hydrocarbon Transmission Pipe- lines and the Publication of the Related Safety Regulations. It contains detailed, but normative requirements, and it does not specify the precise technical solutions.
28 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY Figure 12: Operation integrity model The regulations distinguish between the owner and the operator, and determine the criterion system of becoming an operator. The official supervision and control is divided into nation- al (as the main one) and regional levels. It is also has to be mentioned that more than a decade ago there were many attacks against the pipelines (thefts and theft attempts) but in the last few years only 1-2 cases have occurred, more precisely theft attempts — hopefully, at least partly thanks to the new generation leak detection system. Since these are crimes, in each case, the police try to investigate the perpetrators, unfortunately, not with very good results. The general result after a few months is “perpetrator unknown”. A further disadvantage in the Hungarian practice is if the perpetrator(s), are caught, the court proceeding lasts either for five to ten years. OTHER RISKS AND TRAPS All economic organizations, irrespective of the form of as- sociation, have to “produce” profit on middle and long term to reach sustainability. Unfortunately, the profit expecta- tions beat the integrity requirements. Although the pipeline transportation is one of the safest and cheapest means to transport crude and crude oil products, it poses a great po- tential threats to the environment because of the large vol- ume of hazardous liquids that could be released. However, there is a price of compliance with the integrity require- “There is a price of compliance with the integrity requirements, which can be managed at the expense of profit. In many cases, the “appetite” for profit is greater than the pursuit of security. Ferenc Peterfalvi Nobody should forget that in the background, the sensibil- ity of the society is high and the tolerance level for error is lower and lower for the oil industry. ments, which can be managed at the expense of profit. In many cases, the “appetite” for profit is greater than the pursuit of security. If this is accompanied by a profit-ori- ented managerial incentive system, the safety “margin” is getting smaller and small- er during the operation. The first idea of the management almost always the cost reduc- tion. Lacking better options the technical professionals must trust the “fortune factor”, which eventually makes them become losers. It can be another risky situa- tion for the pipeline operator when the organization is a part of a big (multi-divisional) company. The top manage- ment is mainly responsible for the yearly profit and may not see the details. The strategic goals change, depending on business environ- ment there are new developing areas, which need money. The result is again cost reduction as a consequence of the financial source transfer. In case of aging means, it is extremely dangerous if the integrity requirements are not aligned with business cycles due to not mature enough corporate culture. CONCLUSION This paper, due to limits on length, does not cover the defense against natural disasters (landslide, subsidence, earthquake, flooding) and cyberattacks; although the latter can be a major challenge for the future. It summarizes the essential elements of integrated pipe- line operation, which have a significant impact beside stricter social expectations. In the case study, we have an example when public decla- rations are sharply in contrast with the real situation. It also reviews the potential dangers to pipelines, and in another way of grouping, the other causes of malfunc- tioning; furthermore it shows the available in line inspec- tion techniques.
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 29 References          F. Peterfalvi, Modernizing the leak detection system for MOL’s oil product pipelines. Pipeline Science and Technology (Vol.1, No.2-3, 2017) PHMSA, Failure Investigation Report, LP, Line, 901 Crude Oil Release, May 19, 2015 Santa Barbara County California. May 2016 https://www.plainsallamerican.com/operational-safety, May 21, 2015 Prof. Phil Hopkins, Why failures happen and how to prevent future failures. Journal of Pipeline Engineering (June, 2012, Vol.II, No2). BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2017 3R International Special 01/2017, ptc Berlin,2017 Concawe Report, no 6/18, Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines, 2017 Dr. Ian M. Ralby, Downstream Oil Theft, Global Modalities, Trends, and Remedies. Atlantic Council, Global Energy Center, 2017 15 May 2018 Reuters, Statoil to become Equinor, dropping “oil” to attract young talent. Author Ferenc Peterfalvi MOL Pipeline Operation Manager firstname.lastname@example.org For the right application of diagnostics tools, which are the bases of the maintenance and rehabilitation works, there is an indispensable need for technical systems, such as SCADA, within which reliable leak detection systems has a prominent role. Now the pipeline operators have such software tools that can effectively handle a wide range of functionalities in a single system (Pipeline Integrity Management System). The successful operation also includes the appropriate organization- and process-related elements. The best technical conditions though can only be exploited with well-trained and continuously developing professionals. At the high competency level, the operator’s task is to quickly and professionally react to an emergency, which can only be achieved by regular trainings/preparation and drills, with a continuous preparedness team in the background. In today’s busy world, in order to avoid surprises, it is important to maintain track surveillance services with different capabilities. In addition, there may be “external” traps and dangers, which derive from the priority of profit or from other centralized prioritization processes. The operation integrity model can be compared to a gear system; failure of any gears, as a weakest link, results in incorrect output. (Figure 12) MEMBER OF TH 34 INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC & EXPERT MEETING OF GAS PROFESSIONALS OPATIJA, CROATIA, 8 - 10 MAY 2019 STRENGHTEN YOUR COMPANY’S POSITION AND SHOWCASE EXPERTISE TO OVERCOME THE CHALLENGES OF THE GAS INDUSTRY Present your products and technical solutions in front of 600 gas experts, mostly managers of the leading Croatian and European gas and energy companies CONFERENCE TOPICS 1. 2. 3. CURRENT STATE AND TRENDS OF GAS RESERVES IN THE WORLD, EU AND CROATIA REGARDING CURRENT AND FUTURE CONSUMPTION EFFICIENT TECHNOLOGIES AND THE USE OF GAS WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES FUTURE CONSTRUCTION OF GAS INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES IN CROATIA AND IN EUROPE 4. SMART TECHNOLOGIES IN GAS AND ENERGY SYSTEMS 5. INNOVATION AND TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGIES AND THEIR ROLE IN THE GAS INDUSTRY 6. 7. 8. 9. TODAY’S GAS MARKET IN THE EU AND CROATIA AND CHALLENGES IN THE FUTURE ISSUES RELATING TO GAS DISTRIBUTERS IN TERMS OF SYSTEM EFFICIENCY AND SECURITY THE POTENTIAL OF THE USE OF GAS IN TRANSPORT AND ASSOCIATED ISSUES TECHNICAL REGULATIONS, RULES OF THE PROFESSION AND CONSUMER RIGHTS 10. POSTER SESSION ON VARIOUS ENERGY TOPICS see more details through QR code on your smartphone BOOK YOUR STAND ON-TIME! https://susret.hsup.hr/en/ exhibition/ REGISTER A PAPER – SUBMIT ABSTRACT! https://susret.hsup.hr/en/ paper-registration-and- abstract-submission/ Croatian Gas Center Ltd., Heinzelova 9/II, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia, phone: +385 (0)1 6189 590, e-mail: email@example.com
PREDICTING THE FUTURE - Applying corrosion growth rates from in-line inspections Abstract There are various approaches that can be used firstly to estimate corrosion growth rates from repeat in-line inspection (ILI) data and secondly for applying growth rates in pipeline integrity assessments. With the goal of producing realistic and targeted repair schedules that avoid unnecessary repairs whilst ensuring safety, this article shares experiences gained via two integrity assessment case studies. Jane Dawson > Baker Hughes, a GE company
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 31 Corrosion is still one of the major threats to the integrity of onshore and offshore pipelines. Realistic corrosion growth rates are essential inputs to safe and effective pipeline integrity management decisions. For example, corrosion rates are needed to predict pipeline reliability as a function of time, to identify the need for and timing of field investigations and/or repairs and to determine optimum re-inspection intervals. The consequences associated with using wrong cor- rosion growth rates range from the inefficient use of resources (time, people and money) on unnecessary repairs and/ or inspections to in the worst case, unexpected pipeline releases. The identification of where corrosion is active on a pipeline and how fast it is growing is a complex process which is understood in the general sense but is highly vari- able. Corrosion is therefore difficult to predict due to the very localised nature of its behaviour and the many parame- ters that influence the corrosion reaction. Running an in-line inspection (ILI) tool in a pipeline iden- tifies the internal and/or external corrosion located along the full length of the pipeline. GE company (BHGE) is able to test and validate our earlier ILI based growth rate predictions versus what actually occurred in the pipeline over time. The ILI inspection also determines the depth, length and width measurements for each corrosion site and for the overall feature. The use of repeat ILI data to match and compare metal loss sites in order to estimate the corro- sion growth rates at individual defects along a pipeline is a well-used and established practice in the industry. With the benefit of this hindsight, the predictive analyt- ics employed for evaluating and applying ILI based cor- rosion rates can be further improved and refined to give more accurate predictions of the future pipeline condi- tion, the response schedule and for setting the optimum timing of re-inspections. The use of such corrosion rates to make predictions of the future integrity of a pipeline started almost 20 years ago and over that time considerable experience has been gained. Now that we are starting to collect 3, 4 or even 5 or more ILI data sets for the same pipelines, Baker Hughes, a The next section of this article illustrates how corrosion growth rates derived from repeat ILI runs can be applied in pipeline integrity assessments. In particular, the applica- tion of fixed corrosion rates vs location specific rates is investigated using case studies on real BHGE ILI data sets.
32 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY Figure 1: Distribution of Box Growth Rates along Pipeline (External) i. Fixed rate of 32mpy (maximum ILI based growth rate observed in the pipeline). ii. Fixed rate of 16mpy (maximum pitting rate suggested in NACE RP0502). iii. Variable rate (location specific rate) tak- en from the maximum rate reported per pipe joint across the full pipeline. As shown in Figures 3 and 4 the choice of fixed growth rate has a huge effect on the number of responses scheduled year on year. At a fixed rate of 32mpy, over 9000 de- fects (in 1123 pipe joints) require repair over the next 5 years. Clearly, predicting the time to repair using this high rate results in a very high number of repairs. In compari- son, applying a fixed rate of 16mpy results in 510 repairs (in 162 pipe joints) over 5 years. This is clearly a more manageable plan, however for any corrosion growing at > 16mpy it is not a safe plan and we know from the ILI run comparison assess- ment that growth rates up to 32 mpy were observed in the first 10 miles of the line. So, without the knowledge of this critical information on the localised rates choosing this repair plan would be non-conservative and could result in unexpected failure. Figure 2: Severity Assessment of External Corrosion Anomalies Fixed rate = 32mpy Case Study 1 - The first case study is a 36” diameter gas pipeline that was constructed during the 1980’s. The pipeline has an extensive external corrosion population (approximately 80,000 external metal loss clusters) with a maximum reported depth of 70% of the wall thickness from the latest ILI. A BHGE ILI signal matching corrosion growth assess- ment was conducted between the last two ILI surveys and localised growth rates were determined for every pipe joint along the full length of the pipeline. The growth rates were observed to be higher in the first 10 miles of the pipeline with the corrosion growth rates in that section estimated to be as high as 32 mpy (0.8mm/ yr) as shown here in Figure 1. Figure 2 shows the severity assessment of the external corrosion anomalies reported in the latest ILI survey in relation to the maximum operating pressure (MOP) and MOP x 1.25 safety factor (SF) using the RSTRENG as- sessment criteria. One anomaly exceeds the allowable dimensions at 1.25 x MOP. The time before a repair is required (the scheduled re- sponse time) was predicted on the basis of the following three scenarios: Figure 3: Number of Scheduled Response per Year, Fixed Rate Fixed rate = 16mpy Figure 4: Number of Scheduled Response per Year, Fixed Rate
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34 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY An alternative approach to using fixed rates is for BHGE to apply localised growth rates to the corrosion anomalies based on their specific location in the pipe- line. This approach is far better suited to this pipeline given the high variability in the observed growth behav- ior along the pipeline length as shown in the chart on the previous page. The maximum corrosion growth rates associated with every pipe joint were also calculated. The highest growth rate observed was 40 mpy (1mm/yr) with the average rate being 8 mpy (0.2mm/yr). The scheduled response time (time to repair) was predict- ed on the basis of the following three scenarios: In this case the maximum growth rate reported per pipe joint is applied to all the reported anomalies within that entire pipe joint (pipe spool). Figure 6 shows the number of scheduled responses predicted by year since the last ILI run using these location specific rates. On this basis 1241 corrosion defects (in 145 pipe joints) are predicted to require repair over the next 5 years. In this response plan the highest growth rates have been applied at the locations where they have previously been observed in the pipeline. This results in a more targeted and optimised response plan than simply applying a fixed rate across all defects. Case Study 2 - The second case study is a 24” diameter gas pipeline constructed in 1980. The most recent BHGE ILI survey reported an external corrosion population of just over 35,000 anomalies; the maximum depth was reported as 88% of the wall thickness. The case study is based on the last two ILI surveys which were conducted 5 years apart. i. A fixed corrosion growth rate of 16mpy (maximum pitting rate suggested in NACE RP0502). ii. The maximum pipe joint growth rates were applied to corrosion within each individual pipe joint*. iii. The defect individual rates were applied across the corrosion depth profile for each reported anomaly*. *A lower bound limit was applied to the corrosion rate representing the rate equivalent to the repeatability error associated with the ILI data comparison (of 6mpy (0.15mm/yr) in this case). The results are summarised in Table 1 below: Scenario No. of Repairs over next 5 years i. Fixed rate of 16mpy (0.4mm/yr) ii. Maximum rate per joint iii. Individual defect rates 544 112 15 Table 1: Number of Repairs Over Next 5 Years at Different Rates An ILI signal matching corrosion growth assessment was conducted between the last two BHGE ILI surveys and individual defect growth rates were determined within each corrosion anomaly (cluster) across the full pipeline. • The fixed rate of 16 mpy results in the highest num- ber of repairs in this case even though rates as high as 40 mpy were observed from several corrosion anomalies in the pipeline. • • • Both scenarios ii. and iii. result in targeted response plans with signifi- cantly lower number of repairs than with the fixed rate. The maximum rate per joint results in approximately 5 times fewer repairs than the fixed rate scenario. The individual defect rates applied to the corrosion profile results in even fewer repairs, over 30 times fewer than the fixed rate and 7 times fewer than the joint rates. Figure 5: Number of Scheduled Response per Year, Location Specific
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 35 The above results demonstrate that increasing levels of repair refinement can be achieved by using more detailed corrosion rate data. These findings have been validated by comparing the predicted repair plans with actual ILI findings when there are more than 2 ILI sur- vey results available. In one such scenario a pipeline that had been inspected 3 times (in 2006, 2012 and again in 2015) was used to compare the predicted corrosion severity with the actual ILI findings in 2015. Localised corrosion rates were derived from comparing the 2012 and 2006 BHGE ILI data sets and were applied to the reported 2012 corrosion dimensions to predict the future corrosion severity. BHGE concluded that growing the 2012 ILI results using the 2006 to 2012 localised growth rates very closely represented the actual severity of the corrosion anomalies reported in the 2015 ILI survey. CONCLUSIONS The corrosion growth rates obtained from a comparison of two ILI data sets can, depending on the proportion of sites being compared, result in a fixed growth rate estimate (e.g., a maximum or average rate) or location specific growth rates (e.g., pipe joint rates or defect specific rates). Two case studies have been used to demonstrate how both fixed and variable growth rates can be applied in pipeline integrity assessments and to compare the results obtained. The application of fixed rates can be very conservative and will lead in many cases to unnecessary repairs or if the rates are too low to an unsafe assessment of the future integrity of a pipeline. Using location specific (vari- able) growth rates (both scenarios of applying the max- imum rate per pipe joint and defect specific rates were presented in the case studies) has been found by BHGE to provide more realistic and targeted predictions of re- pair needs. The location specific growth rates were shown to give accurate predictions of the corrosion severity over time, thus resulting in realistic scheduling of future repair needs & setting of appropriate ILI intervals. There are various approaches that can be used to de- fine corrosion growth rates for use in pipeline integrity assessments. The major advantage of using repeat ILI data to derive corrosion rates over other methods is that the ILI can provide growth rate information on the whole detectable corrosion population giving visibility of what is happening along the entire pipeline. Depending on the number of corrosion defects to be compared, the ILI based corrosion growth assessment can demand significant effort and expertise to ensure accu- rate and meaningful matches between often very large ILI data sets. Specialist ILI comparison software facilitates efficient and accurate defect-to-defect matching and the depth comparison to determine defect specific growth be- tween the two runs across the large ILI defect populations. Author Jane Dawson Baker Hughes, a GE company Principal Consultant and Product Manager firstname.lastname@example.org STAY UP TO DATE WITH THE PTJ-NEWSLETTER Latest pipeline news from all over the world Newest Products and Solutions for the industry Biweekly update, comprehensive, free of charge and reliable https://newsletter.eitep.de
IMPROVING PIPELINE SCRAPING OPERATION – A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH AND CASE STUDY Husain Al-Muslim, Mousa Al-Harbi > Saudi Aramco Abstract A critical step in ensuring that a pipeline is fit and healthy for operations is continuous scraping “cleaning” and frequent scraping inspection. If scraping activities are not properly performed, pipeline integrity can be at risk. In a case study, numerous networks of pipelines were found to be operated with different experiences and internal guidelines. This variation led to impact on pipeline integrity in terms of metal loss as well as several other issues such as leaking doors, scraping tools being stuck or damaged, valves passing, and signal passage indicators “SPIs” failures. Therefore, a systematic approach was initiated to review the different practices, procedures in an internal comparison with various experiences, and benchmarking with international users. The objective was to adopt best practices and develop consistent guidelines for scraping operation by focusing on the major areas such as standard piping layout of scraping facility, valve selection strategy, operation instruction of scraping activity, operation and maintenance of scraper doors, deployment of non-intrusive scraper passage indicator, and scraper tool design selection. A success criterion was also developed by defining the scraping efficiencies, which is the percentage of actual versus planned scraper runs.
BACKGROUND On-stream scraping is essential to pipeline operations in terms of maintaining both pipeline efficiency, as well as integrity. Running effective brush cleaning scrapers through pipelines will remove accumulated solid debris and leftover liquids as well as smoothen the pipe wall. This will reduce pipeline pressure, increase product flow as well as meet the product specs. A scraper with sealing discs will push out accumulat- ed condensates in gas pipelines and will prevent internal corrosion. The concept is simple, but the implementation is challeng- ing for a complex pipeline network. Al- though scraping is largely based on experi- ence and it is more of an art than a defined science, the complexity of the network needed a systematic approach to develop meaningful and useful guidelines. Each pipeline shall be equipped with a scraping facili- ty in order to enable scraping operations. The scraping facility consists of main components shown in Figure 1. Questionnaire Workshops Field visits Trap Door Tool Design Trap Valves Trap Layout Scraping OIM Tool Tracking Figure 2: Systematic approach to improve pipeline scraping operations RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 37 Figure 1: Main components of scraping station The scraping station is required in order to facilitate the launching and receiving of scrapers tools. Thus, each pipeline must be equipped with one launching scraping facility, and at the end of the pipeline another facility for receiving the scrapers. The operation is performed by closing the trap valve and kicker valves. Once the system is completely isolated, the barrel is fully drained and purged to insure it is safe for field personnel to open the door. Once the door is opened, the scraper is loaded inside the trap, and the door is then closed. Then, the trap valve is opened, and mainline valve is closed, or partially closed, and the kicker lines are opened to divert the flow to launch the scraper. Nonetheless, scraping operations usually involve several challenges that hinder its regular scheduled operations. The challeng- es may include any mechanical issues with the scraping facility components such as trap valves, kicker valves, vent/drain sys- tems, scraper enclosers. A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO IMPROVE PIPELINE SCRAPING OPERATIONS – CASE STUDY In a case study as part of efforts to enhance reliability and integrity of pipeline networks, a systematic approach to identify and tackle top challenges hindering scraping operations was developed (Figure 2).
38 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY “Although scraping is largely based on experience and it is more of an art than a defined science, the complexity of the network needed a systematic approach to develop meaningful and useful guidelines. Husain Al-Muslim personnel lacked the training and did not have access to the maintenance instruction manuals. Several improve- ments have been implemented: • • • Establish training for field personnel Build digital database for all relevant drawings and spare parts Conduct periodical maintenance Figure 3: Leaking scraper trap door which is hindering the planned scraping run The network consists of different types of services both upstream and downstream including water injection, oil, gas, and refined products. The pipeline sizes range from 6” to 60”. The age of pipes vary from 50 years old to new installations and accordingly, their conditions and cleanliness vary. The approach was developed to solve persisting field challenges related to pipeline scraping including many delays in scraping operations due to valve passing or scraper door leakage (Figure 3), scraper tools being stuck inside pipelines, increase in pipeline corrosion rate, and impact on downstream equipment and facilities (Figure 4). The approach in- cludes data collection through three sources: question- naire to operators, workshops between operators and subject matter experts, and field visits. More than 60 gaps were highlighted, and subsequently categorized in six focus areas: scraping barrel closure door, scrap- ing facility layout design, scraper tool design, scraping operation and instruction (OIM), trap area valves, and scraper tool tracking. A team was formed from operators and subject matter ex- perts to fully understand the challenges identified based on the available data, and work with several vendors and service providers to bridge the identified gaps. The following summarizes the challenges and recommen- dations in the six categories identified as focus areas. 1 - traP door; A comprehensive review was conducted on the different door design methods as well as the recommended prac- tices for operating and maintaining the doors versus the current operators’ experiences. Through failure history, field visits, and vendor consultation, failures were found to be mainly due to poor preventive maintenance prac- tices like improper seal area cleaning as well as using in- appropriate spare parts like the sealing O-rings. The field 2 - traP layout: The trap layout was reviewed in terms of numbers of isolation valves and valve type. Field challenges indicated that gas pipelines are more susceptible to the challenge of passing valves. Benchmarking was conducted with interna- tional oil and gas companies to identify their practices. Uti- lizing double isolation and bleed was found to be the best practice in gas pipelines and NGL, with ball valve being the most common. This was incorporated in the internal guide- lines to be used during project design and development. 3 - tool design: The main gaps related to tool design include selecting the right dimensions of the mandrel as well as sealing discs and guide discs. Moreover, improper selection of the hardness of the polyurethane discs lead to ineffective scarping operations, the discs being worn out partially Figure 4: Control valve damaged by black powder accumulated due to ineffec- tive scraping
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 39 5 - traP valves: Valve failures are always related to proper operation and maintenance. Several field surveys were conducted to evaluate the field valves performances for recently installed valves (in operation for less than five years) in different services (oil vs. gas, corrosive vs. non-corro- sive). The reported failures were grouped in terms of size, pressure rating, service, and body seal design. A compre- hensive report was prepared to address common failure causes and solutions such as the online and periodical maintenance for API-6D Ball and TC gate valves as well as the pressure balanced plug valves. 6 - tool tracking: Major concerns were highlighted with regards to the conventional intrusive scraper passage indicators (SPIs) vs. the new technologies of the non-intrusive SPIs. A thorough comparison was conducted on the types of non-intrusive SPIs. Three types where identified; passive acoustic, active ultrasonic and magnetic detection devic- es. Clear guidelines about the use, the specifications and the limitations of each type were developed. SCRAPING PROGRAM CURRENT REALITY AND DESIRED OUTCOME The overall scraping program was also evaluated to understand the challenges in addition to challenges that were evaluated for the individual scraping runs. The main Figure 5: Worn-out scraper seals due to improper material selection or completely (Figure 5) lead to the scrapers being stuck in the middle of the pipeline. A detailed document was developed on how to select the right material, select the right dimensions (Figure 6) and recommend the addition- al appurtenances like brushes and magnets. 4 - scraPing oPeration instruction Manual (oiM): The review identified significant variations on conducting the scraping operations between different operators. Some practices were found to be subpar leading to ineffective scraping runs. Various techniques and best practices ad- opted by all department were carefully reviewed to gener- ate a common OIM accessible to all internal operators. Figure 6: Schematic of properly design scraper tool
40 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY gaps identified in the scraping program are determining the cleaning frequency and the scraping runs records. cleaning FreQuency The most important aspect of an effective cleaning pro- gram is the cleaning frequency. There is inconsistency in determining the cleaning frequency as it is only relying on the experience of the responsible engineer. The annual cleaning plan for each scrapeable section of the network is mainly defined based on the type of fluid running in the line. In some instants, some pipeline sections receive spe- cial attention (i.e., through increasing cleaning frequen- cies) driven by the ILI inspection date. On the other hand, a standardized approach to decide upon the cleaning frequency and when it shall be changed does not exist. Some pipelines are being cleaned on a constant frequen- cy without assessing the need to increase the frequency due to changing operational parameters (such as water ingress) or reported corrosion growth. Guidelines for cleaning frequency were partially devel- oped for some crude oil pipelines. However, this was not generalized to cover a wider range of the hydrocarbon services such as sales gas that experiences black powder. In brief, the current cleaning frequency has the following shortcomings: “Developing the guidelines is a very im- portant milestone in having a successful and effective scraping program, but is not the ulti- mate goal. Husain Al-Muslim Fixed frequency for each pipeline decided by service. 1. 2. Plans are not dynamic enough to address pipeline upset and cleanness issues to minimize the associat- ed impact on pipelines integrity on a timely basis. scraPing runs records The scraper cleaning plans are set one time at the begin- ning of the year. However, there is no controlled proce- dure for updating the plan. In many instances, the chang- es in the plan during the year are not updated. Even in case of updates taken place, the updated plan is not easily retrievable as it is not available in a centralized da- tabase. Run performance and cleaning jobs quantifiable measures do not exist. Reporting the results of scraping runs is not practiced. The current Key Performance Index (KPI) which measures the percentage of total scraping runs to the planned run could be misleading. While some pipeline segments get more than planned scraping runs due to ILI inspection period or recorded upsets, others are not adequately scraped. 6. Collaboration model to implement recommendations to improve pipeline scraping o Figure 6: Collaboration model to implement recommendations to improve pipeline scraping operations
SPECIAL CONTENT: NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR PIPELINE DIAGNOSTICS: TRANSNEFT DIASCAN CASE STUDY Abstract For many years, operational safety and reliability of trunk pipelines had been ensured by scheduled preventive repair works and major overhaul, generally accompanied with a total replacement of pipes or insulation coating. However, this method proved to be inefficient and cost-intensive given the ageing pipeline systems. The modern maintenance strategy is based on the selective repair of defective sections following the in-line inspection (ILI) results. Established in 1991, Diascan Technical Diagnostics Center (later renamed to Transneft Diascan), has been handling all tasks of acquiring initial data and assessing the pipeline’s technical condition, as well as identifying safe operating modes and repair procedures. Transneft Diascan also provides all methods, regulations, tools and processes for ILI. The Company’s core business is carrying out in-line inspection of pipelines with the diameter range from 6 to 48 inch- es using ILI tools manufactured by Transneft Diascan itself. The tool fleet includes geometry tools with a navigation system, ultrasonic, combined magnetic and combined magnetic-ultrasonic units. All ILI tools manufactured by Trans- neft Diascan are high-precision ones, capable of both detecting a defect and measuring its parameters and type. This data is fundamental to calculations of pipe strength and durability, as well as limit pressure and operational life. Transneft Diascan has achieved its full potential in Russia, being the largest Russian ILI services provider. Today, the Company is promoting its services based on its 27-year-long experience, to the international markets. Transneft Diascan cooperates with companies from Kazakhstan, Belarus, Mexico, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, the Czech Republic and Latvia. Scheduled projects include Saudi Arabia, Algeria, India, Malaysia, Indonesia and South America.
PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 43 SPECIAL CONTENT NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR PIPELINE DIAGNOSTICS: TRANSNEFT DIASCAN CASE STUDY ILI TOOL ZEROING IN The difficulty in acquiring reliable data on the condition of a trunk pipeline section is immanent to the nature of the facility itself. The pipeline network is stretched across a long distance and sometimes is hard to reach, so the methods of non-destructive control traditional for other industries don’t work well enough here. At the same time, trans- portation of such environmentally aggressive product as crude oil under high pressure and in big amounts requires utmost attention to the pipeline integrity. Before 1990s, the main method of estimating the pipeline condition was regular hydraulic testing with high pressure, while the fault prevention procedures were limited to major overhaul and total replacement of pipes or coating at a given section. Every year such “total replacement” covered some 1.5 % of the total length of trunk oil pipelines, As the gener- al infrastructure grew older, this method kept falling behind the industry’s actual need to maintain reliable operations of the oil pipeline system. The time had come for a transit from the major over- haul to the selective repair of sections that actually had potentially hazardous defects. However, such transit depended on a brand new method of acquiring information about the technical condition of a pipeline. That is why the new strategic approach to ensuring operational safety of oil trunk pipelines in Russia was focused on timely prevention of their technical degra- dation by conducting in-line inspection and consequent selective repair. In the follow-up of this strategy, a center of technical diagnostics, or Diascan, was established in 1991. The company name combined two meanings: diag- nostics and scanning. Today, Transneft Diascan is a hi-tech, knowledge-inten- sive enterprise with an advanced production capacity and high innovation potential. Its tool fleet includes over 90 ILI tools, manufactured by Transneft Diascan itself, and capable of inspecting pipes with the diame- ter range from 6 to 48 inches. These are multichannel geometry tools with a navigation system, pipeline posi- tioning tools, ultrasonic, magnetic, combined magnetic and magnetic-ultrasonic inspection tools, as well as tools for multi-angle inspection of pipe walls. Apart from the oil pipeline inspection, Transneft Dias- can also carries out the inspection of gas pipelines, remodeling its geometry and magnetic inspection tools so that they can work in a gaseous environment. The tool’s speed in oil does not exceed 4 m/s, while in gas it can accelerate up to 10–15 m/s. To avoid any negative impact of this peculiarity on the quality of inspection results, a special device regulating the tool’s speed in gas pipelines was developed. All ILI tools manufactured by Transneft Diascan are high-precision ones, capable of both detecting a defect and measuring its parameters and type. This data is fun- damental to calculations of pipe strength and durability, as well as limit pressure and operational life. Let’s take a glimpse of some inspection tools used at different stages of the control procedure. Multichannel geometry tools (Figure 1) are used to detect and measure geometric anomalies in a pipeline (dents, buckles or ovality), as well as Since its inception and until now, Diascan (later renamed to Transneft Diascan), has been handling all tasks of acquiring initial data and assessing the pipeline’s technical condition, as well as identifying safe operating modes and repair procedures. Transneft Diascan also pro- vides all methods, regulations, tools and processes for ILI. Figure 1: Multichannel geometry tool. Source: Transneft Diascan, JSC
44 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL SPECIAL CONTENT measuring its internal clear opening and bend radii. The tools are equipped with inertial navigation systems deter- mining the pipeline’s spatial position with high accuracy and tracking its change during monitoring. MFL magnetic tools (Figure 2) with axial magnetization of a pipe wall and welded joints are capable of detecting and mea- suring defects in circumferential joints (poor penetration, undercuts, cracks or padding), as well as transverse cracks and pitting corrosion in walls. These tools deliver a high degree of pipe wall magnetization and are equipped with multicomponent high-resolution magnetic field sen-sors with additional eddy current measuring channels. WM and CD ultrasonic tools (Figure 3) are used to detect and measure cor- rosion, mechanical and technological defects in pipes, such as lamination, notches, geometry defects, welded joints misalignment, as well as crack- like defects inside pipe and joint metal. MFL+TFI combined magnetic tools with longitudinal and transverse magnetiza- tion (Fig. 4) are used to detect cracks and crack-like defects (irrespective of their orientation) in longitudinal, transverse and spiral joints, as well as geometry defects and defects in connecting and basic components and repair structures. Figure 2: MFL magnetic tool Source: Transneft Diascan, JSC Figure 3: WM ultrasonic tool Source: Transneft Diascan, JSC Figure 4: Combined magnetic tool (MFL+TFI) Source: Transneft Diascan, JSC
PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 45 SPECIAL CONTENT Figure 6: 48-DKP.00-00.000. ultrasonic ILI tool Source: Transneft Diascan, JSC Figure 7: Tool for the detection of pipeline coating lamination using the EMA technology Source: Transneft Diascan, JSC Combined magnetic-ultrasonic tools have both a CD+WM ultrasonic and MFL mag- netic sections (Figure 5), and are capable to detect different types of pipe defects within one inspection run, thus optimizing diagnostics time. Such simultaneous com- bination of several inspection methods also provides a much higher accuracy than three single-section tools. ILI TOOLS: NEXT GENERATION Transneft Diascan is permanently upgrad- ing its technology and equipment, by in- venting and adopting new inspection tools, software and data processing systems. The company now holds more than 140 intel- lectual property titles, including Russian and foreign patents for some of its useful inventions and models. The last-generation ultrasonic ILI tool, “Ultrasonic Inspection Tool 48-DKP.00- 00.000” (Figure 6) is used to inspect pipelines with the diameter 40, 42 and 48 inches. The tool has a resolution thresh- old less than 3 mm in the circumferential direction and can detect and categorize crack-like defects, both longitudinal and transverse, including in welded joints. There is another invention of Transneft Diascan put into operation in 2018: an inspection tool detecting lamination in pipe coating by applying the technology of non-contact electromagnetic-acous- tic (EMA) excitation and reception of ultrasonic waves (Figure 7). The tool is equipped with a measuring system with electromagnetic-acoustic converters. It applies the method of ultrasonic inspec- tion without an immersion fluid based on the principle of direct and reverse electro- magnetic-acoustic conversion. This meth- od detects minimal-size coating defects. Another novelty is a high- resolution multichannel geometry tool 40-PRN.02- 00.000 with a navigation system. The number of sensor channels has more than dou- bled as compared to the tools of earlier generations, and the sensors’ design has been improved. Figure 5: Combined magnetic-ultrasonic tool (MFL+WM+CD) Source: Transneft Diascan, JSC
46 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL SPECIAL CONTENT Figure 8: Transneft Diascan test ground Source: Transneft Diascan, JSC This allowed to reduce the inertial effect of the mea- suring rods during the tool running at a high speed natural for gas pipelines. It also features a 2.5 times higher accuracy than the previous models, which sig- nificantly enhances the interpretation of the inspection data. For example, the tool can clearly identify such elements as small-diameter air bleeders amidst the tangle of welded connections. Reduced error in measuring geometry defects’ widths al- lowed more accurate calculation of their hazard degree. Another project currently underway is an ultrasonic ILI tool with a phased array. This tool is based on the prin- ciple of sending a beam into the pipe wall under dy- namically adjustable angles and using most advanced methods of ultrasonic data reception and processing within the inspection procedures. At the moment, this concept is unparalleled anywhere in the world. Experiments for improving ILI tools and data processing methods are run at the test ground of Transneft Diascan (Figure 8). The manufactured line of ILI tools perfectly negotiate most difficult pipeline sections with a flow passage up to 0.7–0.85 of the pipe’s diameter and a minimal turning radius, 1.5–3 of the pipe’s diameter. Depending on the version, the tool is operational under temperature from –15 °С to 70 °С, pressure 8–14 MPa and speed 4–6 m/s. When geometry tools and magnetic inspection tools are run at a high speed (for example, in gas pipelines), they are also equipped with speed control units to acquire as much data as possible. The test ground is a unique structure, unparalleled anywhere in the world inspection practice. It has circular and semi-circular above-ground and buried pipelines with different diameters and the total length about 2 km. It also stores a collection of some 12,500 artificial and real-life defects, enriched regularly as the research and development work goes on. RUSSIAN DIAGNOSTICS GOING GLOBAL Transneft Diascan is the biggest ILI services provider in the world. Last year it inspected 54,000 km of Transneft
PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 47 SPECIAL CONTENT Figure 9: Transneft Diascan: operations’ geography Source: Transneft Diascan, JSC pipelines and 7,300 km of third-party pipeline compa- nies, including 4,000 km abroad. The geographic expanse of Transneft Diascan opera- tions is presented at Figure 9. based on different physical principles of non-destructive control. The most advanced inventions of Transneft Dias- can, such as combined ILI tools, use a comprehensive ap- proach to pipeline diagnostics, when all possible defects are detected within one inspection run. Cooperation with foreign clients necessitated deep mod- ernization of the production procedures. Seeking new production opportunities, Transneft Diascan has renewed its line of tools, increased the fleet and adopted new technologies. Cooperation with foreign clients also in- cludes the analysis of related legislation and adaptation of technical reports in accordance with specific require- ments, including terms and definitions used by the client. At present, the company is working in accordance with the international quality standard ISO 9001-2015. It op- erates in 13 countries and has a boundless potential for the expansion of its overseas portfolio. CONCLUSION Transneft Diascan is the biggest ILI services provider in Russia and worldwide. The company’s fleet has more than 90 ILI tools manufactured by Transneft Diascan itself and Using sophisticated software for processing data from different types of equipment allows to analyze the condition of a facility more effectively and to reduce the risk of false detection, while discovering more actual defects of small size. Author Alexander Voronov Transneft Director of Pipeline Transport Facilities’ Technical Development and Operations Department VoronovAG@ak.transneft.ru
48 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL INDUSTRY NEWS Crondall Energy Appoints New Managing Director To Its Consulting Division Crondall Energy, the floating production and subsea engineering specialists, has announced changes to its board to enable it to capitalise on the increasing level of opportunities within the sector. The move follows the creation last year of two distinct service offerings: consulting, provided by Crondall Energy Consultants and its affiliate Crondall Energy Subsea, and its technology arm Buoyant Production Technologies Ltd. which is focused on projects including work on unmanned production facilities and new FPSO designs. The two offerings are part of the Crondall Energy Group. With immediate effect, Anna-Louise Peters, Crondall Energy Consultants’ Finance Director, has been promoted to the role of Managing Director. Her predecessor, Duncan Peace, will continue to oversee Crondall Energy’s group activity as Group Managing Director. He will also lead the technology business as Managing Director of Buoyant Production Tech- nologies. Anna-Louise will retain her group finance responsibilities. In addition, Gary Doyle, previously Crondall Energy Consultants’ Director for SE Asia and Norway, has stepped down from the Board and has sold his shares in the group. Anna-Louise joins Duncan as a shareholder in the newly estab- lished holding company Crondall Energy Ltd., with Duncan remaining the majority shareholder. Gary remains with Crondall Energy as a key member of the management team, retaining his responsibility for SE Asia and Norway. Stephen Booth continues as Managing Director of Crondall Energy Subsea. Duncan Peace, Crondall Energy’s Group Managing Director, said: “These changes will allow us to capitalise on the rapidly expanding opportunities in the market and grow both our consulting and technology businesses.” and “An- na-Louise has shown outstanding leadership during what has been a turbulent period throughout the industry and she has demonstrated that she has the necessary strategic vision and drive to grow the consulting business in the future. Crondall Energy provides engineering, business advisory, project support and training services from its offices in the UK, Singapore, Norway and the US. Buoyant Production Technologies is currently part of a multi-partner study support- ed by the Oil and Gas Technology Centre to prove its concept for a reusable production buoy. Many casualties in pipeline explosion in Mexico Unknown individuals tried to tap gasoline from a fuel pipeline. The attempt led to the explosion of the pipeline, killing at least 89 people and wounding over 50. Local media reported that several hundred people were in the vicinity of the pipeline at the time of the explosion. The pipeline in the city of Tlahuelilpan had previously leaked, and local residents were approaching it to take the gasoline with them in buckets or canisters. The cause of the explosion is still unknown. Video footage showed how panic prevailed at the scene after the explosion. People ran away from the burning fuel line. At the pipeline, flames were blowing up and the fire spread at the scene of the accident. Emergency personnel cordoned off the zone. Mexico‘s President Andrés Manuel López Obrador called on the government to support the people in the affected region. Fuel theft is a big problem in Mexico. According to the operating petroleum company Pemex, there is an attempt to illegally tap one of the pipelines every 30 minutes. Recently ptj reported on the difficulties surrounding the fuel theft problem. Some vital pipelines in Mexico were shut down due to this challenge, leading to the increased use of guarded fuel tanks.
PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 49 INDUSTRY NEWS Comment: Illegal tapping is a serious and rising problem. Together we can fight it. The recent accident in Mexico is a source of great disappointment and sadness among all of us in the international pipeline community. The illegal tapping problem has been growing uncontrollably for the last 15 years throughout the world. Some countries recognize this, whereas others do not. The methodology used by illegal tappers varies considerably from sophisticated systems, which measure the fuel stolen and replace it with water, to a simple spike to allow the fuel under pressure to gush out like a geyser. The Mexico case was probably caused MARCELINO GUEDES F. M. GOMES by a lack of awareness of the dangers allied to extreme poverty. To break the pipe wall with a metal spike is the most unsafe methodology used to tap pipelines by criminals, SENIOR PIPELINE ENGINEER PETROBRAS FELLOW OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS (ASME) because they are not concerned with the quality of the installation or safety. This method would never be utilized in the developed world. In Mexico last weekend however, the criminals must have used a simple spike to perforate the pipe wall. This caused the geyser effect, establishing an atmosphere with gaso- line fumes, which subsequently exploded. Before the explosion, the local population was collecting the fuel, which literally rained down, in saucepans, buckets, big cans or in some cases with trucks. Their behavior was like looters. In this case the poor population was clearly helping the bandits. There have been other cases of huge accidents in the world, where hundreds of people have died. In Brazil, we are developing a Daisy Methodology. We have noticed that in several countries this methodology has been put into use to some extent. Each petal in our daisy represents a different approach, which, when taken together, help to resolve the problem. The petals may be classified into three separate groups: a) Security, Intelligence and Official/External Relationships b) Engineering-Technology, Operational Procedures, Risk Analysis and HSE matters, and c) Legal, Social and Communication Actions. There is a weighting given to each petal in the daisy. Some of these are applicable in certain situations but not others. So, we must measure our efforts for each parameter, as we would use a control panel. An action that is good for France or the UK may not work in Spain, Brazil or Mexico. For example, a change of law may be necessary in one country but not necessarily in all. Social initiatives will work in some countries but are totally inapplicable in others. My perception of this Mexico case is that the Government needs to: Instruct the population as to the potential dangers of pipelines; 1. 2. Change the mindset of the population from supporting the gangs to opposing them and supporting PEMEX; 3. Invest heavily in productive social programs to discourage the collaboration with criminal cartels. There are also several other appropriate action that can be taken. It is the duty of the rest of us in the international pipeline community to help Mexico and all others resolve this problem. The Pipeline Technology Conference – 2019 will take place in Berlin in March and all pipeline experts should be present, because a special panel on illegal tapping will be held.
50 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL INDUSTRY NEWS Comment: Asian and Eastern European Pipeline Operators are pushing their way into North America and Western Europe Large Transport System Operator with their technology subsidiar- ies from Asia and Eastern Europe (e.g. Transneft, Sinopec and oth- ers) are pushing their way into the markets in North America and Western Europe, says Dr. Klaus Ritter in his Editorial for Pipeline Technology Journal. On the one hand, they bring with them specific experience that re- quire the companies that have dominated the technology and the mar- ket to adapt their technology. On the other hand, their step into the international markets also enables these companies to compare their technology with their competitors and adapt it to the requirements. DR. KLAUS RITTER CHAIRMEN ptc EDITOR IN CHIEF ptj However, both opportunities can only be exploited if they can take place on the basis of an open market. This means that technology and service providers also gain access to the markets where their new competitors are at home. Technical journals as well as conferences and exhibitions are the right channel to foster such an expansion. However, entrants to new markets must consider that they are expected to convince potential customers that their technology can compete in terms of safety, reliability and profitability. The next Pipeline Technology Conference will feature an array of interesting panel session in regards of this develop- ment. One of them will focus on Eurasia and the regions significance for the pipeline industry. Currently confirmed for this panel session are Nord Stream 2, TANAP and Turkstream, offering interesting insights into the tradition of cooper- ation between European and Asian energy companies. The upcoming 14th ptc will feature additional panel sessions and plenary discussions about a variety of important pipeline issues. Take your chance and participate in this outstanding international event by registering for the offer most suitable to you. Shell Moving Forward with North Sea Shearwater Pipeline Shell has made its Final Investment Decision (FID) concerning the construction of a 37-km underwater gas pipeline from the Fulmar Gas Line to Shearwater which will be jointly constructed with Exxon Mobil and BP. The construction will include a modification of the Shearwater platform to allow production and processing of wet gas. The hub is expected to produce as much as 400 million cu ft. per day. The construction of this pipeline also opens up other options in the area - if the pipelines are subsequently linked into the Jackdaw field to ensure maximum recovery from the North Sea. Getting operators to keep investing in the pipeline network is a vital way of ensuring smaller deposits don‘t get stranded and rendered uneconomic. Steve Phimister, Shell‘s vice president for upstream in the UK, said: „This is part of our strategy to grow our gas production from around the Shearwater platform and it underscores Shell‘s commitment to maximising the economic recovery of oil and gas from the North Sea. „Through close collaboration with our partners and suppliers, we have been able to reduce costs, simplify the production process and create an important production hub at Shearwater. Fifty years after Shell began working in the North Sea, we continue to invest in projects to deliver more gas to UK consumers for years to come.“
PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 51 INDUSTRY NEWS Petrobras Seeking to Divest Its 4500-km Of Pipeline Assets And Focus On Deep Water Investments Brazil’s state-controlled oil company Petróleo Brasileiro, or Petrobras, could introduce a new sale and purchase agreement (SPA) for the sale of the Transportadora Associada de Gás (TAG) pipeline, after a Brazilian Supreme Court injunction this past July stalled the sale. Petrobras aspires to fetch some $7 billion through the sale of its 4500-km natural gas pipeline infrastructure and invest the proceeds in deep water plays in the Atlantic, which are considered more profitable investments. Before the injunction Petrobras negotiated with a consortium of France’s Engie and Canada’s Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec (CDPQ). Earlier last month, Petrobras’ board approved a five-year investment plan comprising proposed investments worth around $84bn by 2023. These mainly focused on deepwater oil and gas exploration and production assets. The Supreme Court injunction has cost Petrobras an estimated $10 billion. The French-Canadian consortium mentioned above will now have to present a new SPA to the market and allow time for counter offers from any other parties interested in buying TAG from Petrobras, the sources said. The Pipeline Transport Institute and Transneft Diascan Sign Agreements with Algeria-Based Sonatrach The Pipeline Transport Institute and Transneft Diascan have signed contracts for diagnostics (inspection) with Sonatrach, an Algerian state oil and gas com- pany. The documents were signed on December 12, 2018 in the city of Algiers within the framework of the development of the provisions of the memorandum of Cooperation signed between Transneft and Sonatrach. The contract signed by Transneft Diascan considers in-line inspection of several sections of the Algeri- an company’s pipelines. The Transneft R&D signed another contract with Sonatrach for integrated diag- nostics of lightning protection and earthing system for a loading terminal’s hydrocarbon storage farm. The documents were signed in the presence of Sonatrach President Abdelmoumen Ould Kaddour and Vice-President of Transneft Mikhail Margelov. For reference: Sonatrach is an Algerian state oil and gas company. In terms of economic performance it is the biggest company of the Af- rican continent (across all industries). Sonatrach is engaged in oil and gas production, refining, sale and transportation, also investing in power engineering. The Memorandum of Cooperation between Transneft and Sonatrach was signed in October 2017 during the meeting of Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev and Prime Minister of Algeria Ahmed Ouyahia. Pictured (left to right): General Director of the Pipeline Transport Institute Yakov Fridlyand; General Director of Transneft Diascan Sergey Ermish; Vice President of Sonatrach Slimane Arbi-Bey; President of Sonatrach Abdelmoumen Ould Kaddour; Vice-President of Transneft Mikhail Margelov; Ambassador of The Russian Federation to Algeria Igor Belyayev
52 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL CONFERENCES / SEMINARS / EXHIBITIONS 14TH PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE Pipeline T Europe’s Leading Pipeline Conference and Exhibition 18-21 MARCH 2019, ESTREL CONVENTION CENTER, BERLIN, GERMANY Conference 2010 EVENT PREVIEW 800+ DELEGATES 80+ EXHIBITORS 50+ DIFFERENT NATIONS From 18-21 March 2019 Europe’s leading conference and exhibition on pipeline systems, the Pipeline Technology Conference, will take place for the 14th time. The core ptc (19-21) will be supplemented with two side conferences and a number of seminars, taking place on 18th of march. ptc 2019 offers again opportunities for operators as well as technology and service providers to exchange latest onshore and offshore technologies and new developments supporting the energy strategies world-wide. More than 800 delegates and 80 exhibitors are expect- ed to participate in the 14th ptc in Berlin. The practical nature of ptc was always based on the cooperation with our technical and scientific supporters and on a top-class interna- tional advisory committee. The conference will feature lectures and presentations on all aspects surrounding oil, gas, water and product high, medium and low pressure pipeline systems. Please take a closer look into the “First Announcement and Call for Papers” and get involved now - send in your presentation suggestion and reserve your booth at the exhibition.
CONFERENCES / SEMINARS / EXHIBITIONS PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 53 Pipeline T Conference 2010 14TH PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE & EXHBITION EUROPE’S LEADING PIPELINE EVENT THE ANNUAL GATHERING OF THE INTERNATIONAL PIPELINE COMMUNITY IN THE HEART OF EUROPE After starting as a small side event of the huge HANNOVER MESSE trade show in 2006, the Pipe- line Technology Conference developed into Eu- rope’s largest pipeline conference and exhibition. Since 2012 the EITEP Institute organizes the ptc on its own and moved the event to Berlin in 2014. EXHIBITORS OF PTC 2018: 70+ Pipeline Operators 17 thematic focuses at ptc 2019 Construction Corrosion Protection Digitalization Environmental Impact Illegal Tapping Inline Inspection Integrity Management Leak Detection Maintenance & Repair Materials Offshore Technologies Planning & Design Pump & Compressor Stations Stress Corrosion Cracking Third Party Impact Trenchless Technologies Valves & Fittings ptc Side Conferences • Qualification & Recruitment • Public Perception ptc Seminars • Inspection Technologies for Traditional and Challenging Pipelines • Inspection of Offshore Pipe- lines and Risers • Pipeline Life-cycle Extension Strategies • Risk Assessment and Man- agement of Pipeline Projects subjected to Geohazards 2 4
54 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL CONFERENCES / SEMINARS / EXHIBITIONS Diamond Sponsor Platinum Sponsors Golden Sponsors Silver Sponsors ptc Marketing Power Take advantage of the reach and power of ptc with a multi-faceted marketing program designed specifically to benefit the sponsors appearing at ptc 2019. Pre-Event Marketing • Adverts in Media Partner Journals • ptc Website • Pipeline Technology Journal (ptj) • ptc + ptj Newsletter • Press Releases • • Brochures • Direct Mailings • Promotion at Networking Events Social Media Activities During the Event Social Media Activities • Brochure in Conference Bag • • Networking Events • Conference Breaks within Exhibition Area Post-Event Marketing • Press Releases • ptc + ptj Newsletter • • • ptc Website • Pipeline Technology Journal (ptj) Final Report Social Media Activities 30K Verified Addresses 22 Media Partners >2K Followers on social networks Get in touch with us if you would like to get to know more about our sponsoring Opportunities. 42 Advisory Committee Members 16 Supporting Associations
CONFERENCES / SEMINARS / EXHIBITIONS PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 55 Confirmed Exhibitors as of 17.01.2019 REGISTER YOUR STAND AT www.pipeline-conference.com/stand-booking 50+ DIFFERENT NATIONS DELEGATIONS FROM 70+ DIFFERENT PIPELINE OPERATORS FROM ALL AROUND THE WORLD 800+ DELEGATES 80+ EXHIBITORS 100+ PRESENTATIONS 25 TECHNICAL SESSIONS ACCOMPANYING SCIENTIFIC POSTER SHOW THEMATIC FOCUSES: CONSTRUCTION CORROSION PROTECTION DIGITALIZATION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ILLEGAL TAPPING INLINE INSPECTION INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT LEAK DETECTION MAINTENANCE & REPAIR MATERIALS OFFSHORE TECHNOLOGIES PLANNING & DESIGN PUMP & COMPRESSOR STATIONS STRESS CORROSION CRACKING THIRD PARTY IMPACT TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGIES VALVES & FITTINGS
56 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL CONFERENCES / SEMINARS / EXHIBITIONS 14TH PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE 18-21 MARCH 2019, BERLIN, GERMANY EUROPE’S LEADING PIPELINE CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION www.pipeline-conference.com MONDAY, 18 MARCH 2019 PTC SIDE CONFERENCE Qualiﬁ cation & Recruitment PTC SIDE CONFERENCE Public Perception PTC SEMINARS 4 Technical Seminars ptc Reception (for invited speakers, exhibitors, comittee members, session chairs and side conference delegates only) PTC CONFERENCE TUESDAY, 19 MARCH 2019 Opening / Welcome Keynote Speech "Learning from Failures: Moving from ‘Failure’ Cause to ‘Root’ Cause" Plenary Session "Eurasian Pipeline Forum - Linking East and West" Panel Discussion “Digital Transformation and Cyber Security in the Pipeline Industry” 1.1 Inline Inspection 2.1 Digitalization 3.1 Materials 4.1 Trenchless Technolgies 5.1 Coating ptc Get-together party within the exhibition WEDNESDAY, 20 MARCH 2019 1.2 Inline Inspection 2.2 Pump & Com- pressor Stations 1.3 Stress Corro- sion Cracking 2.3 Case Study "TAL Pipeline" 1.4 Integrity Management 1.5 Integrity Management 2.4 Oﬀ shore Technologies 2.5 Oﬀ shore Technologies 3.2 Leak Detection 4.2 Environmental Impact 5.2 Coating 3.3 Leak Detection 4.3 Construction 5.3 Corrosion 3.4 Third Party Impact 3.5 Illegal Tapping 4.4 Planning & Design 4.5 Planning & Design 5.4 Valves & Fittings 5.5 Maintenance & Repair ptc Dinner Invitation “Classic Remise Berlin: A center for vintage cars” (separate registration required) THURSDAY, 21 MARCH 2019 Plenary Session “Pipelines 2050: From Fossil Fuels to Renewable Fuels?” Panel Discussion “Illegal Tapping - Focus Regions, Monitoring and Counter Measures” Closing Remarks PTC WORKSHOPS PTC ROUND TABLES (free access for all delegates) (free access for pipeline operators only) I N O I T I B H X E C T P I N O I T I B H X E C T P I N O I T I B H X E C T P
This year’s PLENARIES „Eurasian Pipeline Forum - Linking East and West“ Plenary Session There is a long tradition of energy cooperation between Europe and Asia. For decades, Russia has been a reliable partner for the supply of crude oil and natural gas. A number of other initiatives are currently being developed. Keywords: Europe, Russia, Central Asia, China. “Digital Transformation and Cyber Security in the Pipeline Industry” Panel Discussion As the energy industry is already preparing for a consistent digital transformation, anoth- er big development for improving the integrity of the systems by big data analytics will be expected. Furthermore, as manufacturers and service providers will make use of IoT tools and products, the energy industry as a critical infrastructure must also gradually improve cyber security and relevant mechanism and processes. Keywords: Digitalization, Industry 4.0, IoT, AI, Critical Infrastructure, Cyber Security, Big Data Analytics. “Pipelines 2050: From Fossil Fuels to Renewable Fuels?” Plenary Session In 2018 the European Commission adopted a strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate neutral economy by 2050. The decline in the cost of renew- able energies has opened the prospect of large-scale production of green hydrogen and liq- uid e-fuels. Pipelines can play an important role in this process. The existing infrastructure can be used to transport the hydrogen and e-fuels, with limited adjustments and costs. Keywords: Hydrogen, E-Fuels, Power-to-Gas, Power-to-Liquid. “Illegal Tapping - Focus Regions, Monitoring and Counter Measures” Panel Discussion Illegal tapping and product theft are severe problems not only regarding economic aspects but also in terms of safety and integrity of the pipeline. According to recent studies, these problems exist not only in emerging markets but currently also in regions like Europe. Keywords: Product Theft, Third Party Impact, Monitoring, Socioeconomics, Counter Measures, Repair.
For our dinner invitation on the second night of the ptc conference & exhibition we could again find a very special place: The Classic Remise Berlin, a center for vintage cars. It was opened in 2003 in a historic tram depot, originally built in imperial times, construction starting in 1899. Now there are garages, services and dealers for classic cars, shops for spare parts, clothing, model cars, accessories and restaurants in this landmark building. The old industrial architecture CONFERENCES / SEMINARS / EXHIBITIONS PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 59 in combination with historic and classic vehicles will guarantee a unique automotive experience in the first classic car center of this kind worldwide. The participants of this exclusive gathering can learn more about the various vehicle models during guided tours and prove their driving skills on a slot car race track. Interested? Register for Conference. this Years Pipeline Technology
60 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL CONFERENCES / SEMINARS / EXHIBITIONS JOB & CAREER MARKET YOUR OPPORTUNITY TO ATTRACT PROFESSIONALS AND HIGH POTENTIALS The international pipeline community is in need of additional personnel. We need more experienced pro- fessionals, but we also need young graduates to join our ranks. Despite attractive working conditions, many companies encounter problems while they are reaching out to potential re- cruits. There are many competing in- dustry sectors who are also in need of high potentials. This results in many vacant jobs in the pipeline community, for operators, technology providers and service providers alike. This necessity has driven us to develop a new service for the global pipeline indus- try. For this reason, we organize the first ptc side conference on Qualification and Recruitment. ptc side conference on Qualification and Recruitment 18 March 2019 Estrel Convention Center Berlin, Germany In the frame of
CONFERENCES / SEMINARS / EXHIBITIONS PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 61 ONE SERVICE - MULTIPLE CHANNELS International Universities Offensive approach: We push forward and gen- erate attention to our career market directly at the universities. We also collect CVs from inter- national graduates and experts and forward it directly to you. Website Continuous promotion : Your vacancies are published on the Pipeline Technology Journal (ptj) website. In Addition, the ptj contains your vacancies too. Biweekly Newsletter Dead on target: We send your vacancies or your company profile to our database of 50,000 international pipeline professionals. International Events Physical appearance: The job & career market has an indi- vidual booth during all EITEP events. Questions? You get: Please contact Mr. Admir Celovic for further information and booking requests. email@example.com +49 / 511 / 90992-20 The most cost-effective support to your recruitment efforts available to the market
62 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL COMPANY DIRECTORY . Association IAOT - International Association of Oil Transporters Czech Republic www.iaot.eu/ DVGW - German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water Germany www.dvgw.de Automation Siemens Germany www.siemens.com Yokogawa Japan www.yokogawa.com Certification Bureau Veritas Germany www.bureauveritas.de DNV GL Norway www.dnvgl.com TÜV SÜD Indutrie Service Germany www.tuev-sued.de/is Cleaning Reinhart Hydrocleaning Switzerland www.rhc-sa.ch/rhc/ Coating 1/2 Denso Germany www.denso.de Kebulin-gesellschaft Kettler Germany www.kebu.de Polyguard Products United States www.polyguard.com Coating 2/2 Premier Coatings United Kingdom www.premiercoatings.com/ RPR Technologies Norway www.rprtech.com/ Shawcor United States www.shawcor.com TDC International Switzerland www.tdc-int.com TIAL Russia www.tial.ru TIB Chemicals Germany www.tib-chemicals.com Construction 1/2 BIL - Federal German Construction Enquiry Portal Germany www.bil-leitungsauskunft.de Herrenknecht Germany www.herrenknecht.com IPLOCA - International Pipe Line & Offshore Contractors Association Switzerland www.iploca.com Liderroll Brasil www.liderroll.com.br LogIC France www.logic-sas.com MAX STREICHER Germany www.streicher.de/en Petro IT Ireland www.petroit.com
PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 63 COMPANY DIRECTORY Construction 2/2 Inline Inspection 2/2 VACUWORX Netherlands www.vacuworx.com Vlentec Netherlands www.vlentec.com Construction Machinery Maats Netherlands www.maats.com Worldwide Group Germany www.worldwidemachinery.com VIETZ Germany www.vietz.de Engineering ILF Consulting Engineers Germany www.ilf.com KÖTTER Consulting Engineers Germany www.koetter-consulting.com Inline Inspection 1/2 3P Services Germany www.3p-services.com A.Hak Industrial Services Netherlands www.a-hak-is.com Baker Hughes, a GE company United States www.bakerhughes.com Intero Integrity Services Netherlands www.intero-integrity.com/ KTN AS Norway www.ktn.no LIN SCAN United Arab Emirates www.linscaninspection.com NDT Global Germany www.ndt-global.com Pipesurvey International Netherlands www.pipesurveyinternational.com PPSA - Pigging Products and Services Association United Kingdom www.ppsa-online.com Romstar Malaysia www.romstargroup.com Rosen Switzerland www.rosen-group.com Inspection Ametek – Division Creaform Germany www.creaform3d.com Applus RTD Germany www.applusrtd.com EMPIT Germany www.empit.com Integrity Management Metegrity Canada www.metegrity.com Pipeline Innovations United Kingdom www.pipeline-innovations.com
64 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL COMPANY DIRECTORY Leak Detection Asel-Tech Brazil www.asel-tech.com Atmos International United Kingdom www.atmosi.com Direct-C Canada www.direct-c.ca Entegra United States www.entegrasolutions.com Fotech Solutions United Kingdom www.fotech.com GOTTSBERG Leak Detection Germany www.leak-detection.de MSA Germany www.MSAsafety.com/detection OptaSense United Kingdom www.optasense.com Pergam Suisse Switzerland www.pergam-suisse.ch PSI Software Germany www.psioilandgas.com sebaKMT Germany www.sebakmt.com SolAres (Solgeo / Aresys) Italy www.solaresweb.com Monitoring 1/2 Airborne Technologies Austria www.airbornetechnologies.at Monitoring 2/2 Krohne Messtechnik Germany www.krohne.com SolSpec United States www.solspec.solutions Operators Transneft Russia www.en.transneft.ru/ TRAPIL France www.trapil.com/en/ Pump and Compressor Stations TNO The Netherlands www.pulsim.tno.nl Repair CITADEL TECHNOLOGIES United States www.cittech.com Clock Spring United States www.clockspring.com RAM-100 United States www.ram100intl.com T.D. Williamson United States www.tdwilliamson.com Research & Development Pipeline Transport Institute (PTI LLC) Russia www.en.niitn.transneft.ru
PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 65 COMPANY DIRECTORY Safety Trenchless Technologies DEHN & SÖHNE Germany www.dehn-international.com/en HIMA Germany www.hima.de Signage Franken Plastik Germany www.frankenplastik.de/en Surface Preparation MONTI - Werkzeuge GmbH Germany www.monti.de GSTT - German Society for Trenchless Technology Germany www.gstt.de Rädlinger Primus Line Germany www.primusline.com Valves & Fittings AUMA Germany www.auma.com Zwick Armaturen Germany www.zwick-armaturen.de Further boost your brand awareness and list your company within the ptj - Company Directory www.pipeline-journal.net/advertise March 2019 In the next Edition of ptj: Pipeline Safety & Operation The next issue of Pipeline Technology Journal (ptj) will address Pipeline Safety & Operation. This is a great opportunity for skilled authors to submit insightful papers and to contribute to the global pipeline industry’s constant professional exchange.
COMPLEMENTARY SERVICES FOR YOUR CORPORATE COMMUNICATION Pipeline Technology Journal off ers a multitude of advertisement opportunities to increase visibility e-Journal Technical Articles e-Newsletter Current News Website Information Hub VIEW OUR MEDIA KIT 2019 FOR DETAILS ABOUT OFFERS, PRICES, TOPICS AND RELEASE DATES www.pipeline-journal.net/advertise
14TH PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE Europe’s Leading Pipeline Conference and Exhibition 18-21 MARCH 2019, ESTREL CONVENTION CENTER, BERLIN, GERMANY www.pipeline-conference.com Next Issue: March 2019 Pipeline Technology Journal In the next Edition of ptj: Pipeline Safety & Operation www.pipeline-journal.net Event Calendar 14th Pipeline Technology Conference (ptc) 19 - 21 March 2019 Berlin, Germany ptc Side Conferences: on Qualification & Recruitment on Public Perception 18 March 2019 18 March 2019 Berlin, Germany Berlin, Germany Commercial UAV Expo Europe 08 April 2019 Amsterdam, Netherlands 34th International Scientific & Expert Meeting of Gas Professionals 8 - 10 May 2019 Opatija, Croatia UESI Pipelines 2019 Conference 21 July 2019 Nashville, Tennessee, USA
Pipeline Technology Journal You have interesting content to share with the global pipeline community? You want to enhance or maintain your international visibility as a company? Submit an Article! Book an Advertisement ! Use ptj as a platform to report about your news, projects, innovations and technologies. If you are interested in submitting insightful technical articles to be considered for the ptj, please send us an abstract for review. North America 37,8% Europe 33.4% Mena Region 6.8% Africa 2.5% South America 4.5% Asia 12.6% China special e-mail list of 20.000 recipients Oceania 2.5% The ptj-brand offers a multitude of adver- tisement opportunities to increase visibility and reputation toward pipeline professionals worldwide. Make use of the extensive ptj-port- folio and reach over 30,000 Experts. ptc ADVISORY COMMITTEE / ptj EDITORIAL BOARD CHAIRMEN Heinz Watzka, Senior Advisor, EITEP Institute Dirk Strack, Technical Director, TAL - Deutsche Transalpine Oelleitung MEMBERS Ulrich Adriany, Senior Technical Expert, ARCADIS Deutschland Arthur Braga, Country Manager, ITF Brazil Jens Focke, CEO, BIL Maximilian Hofmann, Managing Director, MAX STREICHER Dirk Jedziny, Vice President - Head of Cluster Ruhr North, Evonik Industries Dr. Andreas Liessem, Managing Director, Europipe Ralf Middelhauve, Head of Central Dept. Process Industrie / Plant Engineering and Operation, TÜV NORD Systems Dr. Prodromos Psarropoulos, Structural & Geotechnical Engineer, National Technical University of Athens Uwe Ringel, Managing Director, ONTRAS Gastransport Muhammad Sultan Al-Qahtani, General Manager, Pipelines, Saudi Aramco Filippo Cinelli, Senior Marketing Manager, Baker Hughes, a GE company Andreas Haskamp, Pipeline Joint Venture Management, BP Europa SE Dr. Thomas Hüwener, Managing Director Technical Services, Open Grid Europe Cliff Johnson, President, PRCI - Pipeline Research Council International Michael Lubberger, Senior Prod- uct Manager Pipeline, BU Utility Tunnelling, Herrenknecht Steffen Paeper, Offshore Engineering, South Stream Juan Arzuaga, Executive Secretary, IPLOCA Dr. Marion Erdelen-Peppler, Secretary General, EPRG - European Pipeline Research Group Jörg Himmerich, Managing Di- rector / Technical Expert, Dr.-Ing. Veenker Ing.-ges. Mark David Iden, Director, Gov- ernment Relations, Floating Leaf Mike Liepe, Head Business Solu- tion Line O&G Pipelines, Siemens Brigham McCown, Chairman and CEO, Nouveau Bruno Pomaré, Technical Director, Spiecapag Frank Rathlev, Manager of Network Operations, Thyssengas Dr. Joachim Rau, Managing Director, DVGW CERT Hermann Rosen, President, ROSEN Group Michael Schad, Head of Sales International, DENSO ptj-brand-audiences Audience Job Levels 11% CEO 20% Director 26% Manager 43% Executive Company types 23% Operators 61% Techn. / Service Providers 11% Researchers 4% Authorities Dr. Adrian Schaffranietz, Coordi- nator Government Relations, Nord Stream 2 Prof. Dr. Jürgen Schmidt, Manag- ing Director, CSE Center of Safety Excellence Ulrich Schneider, Business Development Manager Continental Europe, KTN Guntram Schnotz, Expert / Pipeline, TÜV SÜD Industrie Service Carlo Maria Spinelli, Technology Planner, eni gas & power Anand Kumar Tewari, Executive Director, Indian Oil Corporation A manifold database Asle Venas, Senior Pipeline Special- ist, DNV GL Paul Waanders, Int. Sales Manager, Maats Pipeline Equipment George Ziborov, Leading expert, Foreign Economic Relations Department, Transneft Bernd Vogel, Head of Network Department, GASCADE Gastransport Tobias Walk, Director of Projects – Pipeline Systems, ILF Consulting Engineers Roger Vogel, Sales Manager - EURA, Baker Hughes, a GE company Thomas Wolf, CEO, NDT Global We deliver content to local practicioners and global decision-makers alike, making the ptj- brand a suitable tool for global knowledge dis- tribution as well as developing and upholding overall visibility in the global pipeline industry.