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Pipeline Technology Journal 2-2015

Latest developments and news from the pipeline industry

RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY Moreover, recent reports by the European Gas Incident Data Group (EGIG) and CONservation of Clean Air and Water in Europe (CON- CAWE) show that external interference is now the leading cause of pipeline incidents in Europe. Figure 4 shows the percentage contri- bution of different causes of pipeline incidents. The data analysed is an extract from EGIG 2015 report covering the period from 2004 to 2013. EXCAVATION AND CONSTRUCTION WORKS AS EXTERNAL INTERFERENCE Excavation and construction works are leading causes of pipeline incidents in developed countries. A report that studied the impact of excavation damage on pipeline safety by the Pipeline and Hazard- ous Material Safety Administration (PHMSA) in USA in 2014 confirms this as seen in Gerard and Timmons [8]. The report shows that 1,630 pipeline incidents resulted from third party excavation damage from 1993 to 2012. Those incidents resulted in 141 deaths, 440 injuries, and approximately $369,736,529 in property damage. It is evident from Figures 5 and 6 that, excavation damage is a leading cause of pipe- line incidents in USA. Various measures employed to reduce the rate of pipeline incidents through excavation and construction works include one call system (call before you dig), Pipeline Right of Way (RoW) and Bill Boards. A bar chart of pipeline incident counts over 20 years in USA as seen in Figure 7 shows a quantum increase in the number of pipeline incidents after 2001. More critical analysis reveals that the trend changed after the 9/11 incident. Before then, USA had an average of 361 pipeline incidents per annum considering the period of 1995 to 2001. However, soon after the 9/11 incident in 2001, pipeline incidents in USA rose to an average of 640 for the period of 2002 to 2014. Figure 2: Causes of Pipeline incidents in SPDC Nigeria (2011-2014) Figure 3: Yearly Pipeline incidents in Nigeria (1995–2013) External Interference Corrosion Constuction Defects / Material Failures Hot Tap Ground Movement Other / Unknown Figure 4: Distribution of causes of Pipeline Incidents. Source: [7] CORROSION EXCAVATION DAMAGE INCORRECT OPERATION MAT'L/WELD/EQUIP FAILURE NATURAL FORCE DAMAGE OTHER OUTSIDE FORCE DAMAGES ALL OTHER CAUSES Figure 5: All reported pipeline incident by cause 2003 – 2012. Source:[8] CORROSION EXCAVATION DAMAGE INCORRECT OPERATION MAT'L/WELD/EQUIP FAILURE NATURAL FORCE DAMAGE OTHER OUTSIDE FORCE DAMAGES ALL OTHER CAUSES Figure 6: Causes of Pipeline incidents in USA (1986-2013) by percentage. Source: PHMSA 48 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL

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