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Pipeline Technology Journal 2-2015

Latest developments and news from the pipeline industry

RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY Author THREAT ANALYSIS The threat analysis of the area of interest is a critical step in the de- sign process. It will allow the security solution provider to understand what are potential criminal behaviors, their modus-operandi, and their goals. The threats risk and dangerousness levels are taken into account, then threats are categorized as social conflict, sabotage, thievery, terrorist, drug dealers, hostage taking, or other. The threat mobility and access to the critical infrastructure are also key factors to estimate time of belligerent action. This estimation of time will drive the timetable of the security solution in the design for detection, identification, and intervention-triggering decision point. In the given example, there could be threats coming from both the land and maritime parts of the region. On the land, the main threat is thievery and sabotage of pipelines, compressor, and valve station. Criminals usually dig and install Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) on pipelines or hot tap them to steal oil. On the maritime side, small boats led by pirates can try to hijack tankers arriving or leaving the port, and even try to attack the port itself. TERRAIN ANALYSIS The region where the critical infrastructure is deployed may add sev- eral constraints to the security solution design. Topography, vegeta- tion, and urban life will drastically affect the design of the security solution. Of course, the topographic features such as mountains can provide great vantage points for security sensors to be installed, but it can also create several blind spots where the incoming threats are in- visible to the sensors. Consequently, a careful analysis of the terrain is of high importance to reduce dead zones and to enhance coverage. A site survey conducted by the system integrator and supervised by the Oil & Gas company is highly recommended to properly analyze the region, its topography, vegetation, and urban life. In the present case study, the region is a desert, flat area nestled between mountains. Vegetation is sparse and a constant low slope reaches the export jetty at sea level. Human concentration is low around this area, other than some camel caravans managed by no- mads who use known trails to cross the region. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS Environmental conditions are important to consider when selecting the sensor types and their platform, the deployment architecture, and the expected performance. Heat, rain, snow, sand, dust, salt, fog, heavy rain, snow, dust, wind and sand, and even atmospheric distor- tion due to heat must be taken into account when designing the sys- tem deployment architecture and equipment requirements. In the present example, the region is exposed to extremely high tem- peratures, with significant sun exposure. The area close to the export jetty is exposed to salty air whereas, on the land portion, constant moderate winds project a lot of sand and dust in the air. The ambient temperature difference between day and night is low, since the rela- tive humidity is quite high due to sea proximity. EXISTING INFRASTRUCTURE AND SECURITY Security solutions can be provided at an early stage of an Oil & Gas project where no existing infrastructures exist. However, new security solutions can also address projects already in the production phase. In these cases, existing infrastructure like electrical power, network connectivity and architecture, facilities, fences, etc. can be used to avoid redundant costs. A competent security system integrator shall be able to integrate legacy sensors into the effective integrated se- curity solution that will allow the customer to reduce his acquisition costs. In the present example, security components installed in the stations and the jetty are provided with electrical power and fibre network connectivity. On the pipeline, a fibre network connectivity is available, but no electrical power is available. INTERVENTION FORCES Having the capability to detect and identify a possible threat in time- ly manner will not by itself avoid any criminal activity on the critical infrastructure to protect. The availability of an intervention capability will highly influence the security solution architecture. The system integrator adapts the security solution based on the intervention per- sonnel’s time to react and the means of reaction (physical barriers, non-lethal weapons, etc.). Depending on the region and context, Oil & Gas companies may benefit from the protection of private security forces, local police forces, and even of the host nation armed forces. It is important for the system integrator to know where the security forces are located and how much time it will take them to get to any location on the protected assets. The availability of the intervention capability also orients the communication solution that will allow transfer of valuable threat information quickly to the right people, therefore minimizing the risk of a successful attack. In the present case study, security operators who don’t have interven- tion authority are hired by the Oil & Gas company and the host nation armed forces have the role to protect the infrastructures since the Oil & Gas industry is paramount to the wealth of the country. Military posts locations are shown in Figure 2. Figure 1: Infrastructures to Protect Figure 2: Military Camps Location 54 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL

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