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Pipeline Technology Journal 2-2015

Latest developments and news from the pipeline industry

RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY SECURITY SOLUTION DESIGN After the initial project study and analysis, the security solution provider and the Oil & Gas company must agree on the set of requirements that needs to be met by the security solution. In the provided example, it has been decided that there should be a detection capability of 15 km around the stations and the export jetty on the land part, since the average speed of an all-terrain vehicle in sand is about 30 km/h, leaving 30 minutes to intercept the threat once it enters the covered area. In this case, the mili- tary intervention forces are equipped with one helicopter at each military camp. A 1-km wide detection corridor over the pipeline is enough since two persons would need a minimum of 45 minutes to dig the ground and reach the pipeline. On the maritime side, a detection range of 30 km around the export jetty is sufficient to survey the area around the export jetty. PLANNING AND COVERAGE SIMULATIONS The first design step consists in establishing the sensor position in a 3D space and the required sensor performance in order to achieve the desired coverage over the critical assets to protect. By conducting soft- ware-aided coverage analyses, the system integrator is able to determine the preferred location for the sensor(s), the sensor performance specifica- tions, and the appropriate platform to reach the required height for proper coverage. Afterwards, if required, the addition of more components like tower-mounted sensors to achieve 24/7 operability may be envisaged. In the current fictional site, the coverage has been simulated and the op- timal deployment has been found to require one 50-m tower per station and jetty, and two intermediate 30-m towers on the pipeline. All towers need sensors with a 15-km range, and the export jetty tower for maritime surveillance needs a sensor with a 30-km range. The simulation in Figure 3 shows the ground and maritime sensors coverage. SENSORS AND PLATFORMS SELECTION Based on these project requirements, the system integrator determines the most suitable detection and identification sensors to quickly and efficiently identify any possible threat in the region of the protected in- frastructure. The system integrator needs to determine the right technol- ogies and product models to provide an adapted detection and identi- fication capability. Once the required products are selected, the sensor mounting platform must be chosen to allow optimal sensor usage. Usu- ally, high vantage points procure a better coverage. Installing a medi- um-size tower at approximately 10 m on top of a hill may be as efficient as a 30-m tower at low ground level. The vertical beam width of maritime or ground radars prevents the radar from being installed too high, which would create a dead zone in its surrounding area. Often, a mix of several platforms prove to be an optimal solution, providing 24/7 operability with fixed or mobile towers and extended coverage capabilities brought up by airborne systems. In the current case study, the tower at the stations and export jetty are fixed (see Figure 4). For the intermediate towers, mobile towers (see Fig- ure 5) are deployed since they can be retracted and moved to a secure lo- cation for maintenance. Each of the five towers is equipped with a ground radar and a long-range stabilized EO/IR imager to allow detection and identification of any vehicle at 15 km. Additionally, a maritime radar and an Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) receiver are installed on the ex- port jetty tower for maritime detection and identification. The long-range EO/IR sensor is used for both land and maritime identification. Distribut- ed acoustic sensing units are installed on the pipeline fibre to detect dig- ging and nearby activities. Fibre optic cable is also installed in the fences to detect intrusion automatically. Figure 3: Coverage Simulation Figure 4: Fixed Tower Surveillance System PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 55

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