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Pipeline Technology Journal 2-2015

Latest developments and news from the pipeline industry

RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY DETECTION Several different technologies are available to achieve automatic de- tection: radars, sonars, microwave barriers, unattended ground sen- sors, distributed acoustic sensing on fibre optics, as well as video mo- tion detection algorithms. All have a common capability: automatic threat detection with no human intervention. This dramatically reduc- es the security team’s response time compared to a system based on visual support only. Furthermore, a security operator should be able to define critical zones into which any given detection toggles an alert or ignores any detection in a given zone thereby reducing the false alarm rate. In order to reduce the false alarm rate, these automatic detection sensors may be paired with automatic identification devices, such as AIS for maritime vessels, air traffic transponders for airborne vehicles, and GPS trackers for personnel and vehicle tracking. Proper software algorithms allow data correlation, providing the operators with a sin- gle friendly classified track. This way, operators can concentrate their efforts on unidentified objects of interest. These detections are provided to the operators as geo-referenced, time-stamped objects of interest. It is then easy for the security op- erators to cue visual cameras onto these objects to identify potential threats. The cameras automatic slew-to-cue functions reduce the time to identify a threat when compared to a manually pointing a camera based on an external entity reference. IDENTIFICATION In order to confirm or infirm a suspicious entity, the security operator shall be able to identify it and to determine if it is a threat or not. Iden- tification also serves for threat characterization. A clear recognizable image is essential for both duties. Long-range electro-optic daylight and infrared sensors are common identification devices. However, devices with smaller ranges, such as day/night CCTVs, and other technologies, like laser-gated infrared sensors, may also be used. The sensor selection is again based and tailored in accordance with the projects constraints. TRACKING When a track is identified as a threat and the interven- tion personnel is alerted, the security operators must en- sure the safety of their colleagues in the field. Tracking is achieved by using the detection, identification, and com- munication equipment adequately. The security operators must supervise the intervention operation by following suspicious threats, either by manual sensors control or through track-follow algorithms, which enable the continu- ous following of a geo-referenced track with cameras with- out requiring human control. At the same time, the security operators must be able to monitor its field personnel posi- tion with the help of GPS trackers, by cueing cameras onto those tracks, either manually or automatically, in order to monitor their personnel’s surroundings. Last but not least, continuous voice and data communications between the security operators and field personnel are paramount to a successful intervention. Security operators shall be able to transfer comprehensive threat information to the field patrol throughout the whole operation, to communicate any suspicious activity detected by the patrol, to call for backup, support, etc. INTERVENTION A concise intervention procedure is crucial to prevent any criminal activity on protected assets. The security solution must facilitate the access of intervention forces to the protected infrastructure to they can catch up with the criminals before they reach critical infrastruc- tures. Ease of access may be provided through several means, such as by choosing the right locations for patrol camps, establishing effi- cient patrol routines, building access roads, trails, etc., and selecting the good vehicle types (pickup trucks, SUVs, ATVs, helicopter, etc.) to ensure quick troop movement to the desired location. If the se- curity solution relies on external intervention forces such as police or the military, a well-trained liaison officer must be able to transmit the most precise information as possible throughout the interven- tion. Whether the security intervention is internal or external, prop- er access to the protected infrastructures must be set up and well maintained. Figure 7: Software Architecture Figure 8: Event Timeline 58 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL

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