9 1 0 2 / 3 e u s s I e Journal Pipeline Technology Journal DIGITALIZATION IN THE PIPELINE INDUSTRY www.pipeline-journal.net ISSN 2196-4300
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Moving forward with digitalization and data smart technologies in the pipeline industry Each year at DNV GL we produce a report which is an industry benchmark study on the outlook for the year ahead in the oil and gas industry. The 2019 report, ‘A test of resilience’ is based on a global survey that incorporates the views of 791 senior industry professionals. Our survey found that digitalization is comfortably the leading R&D priority for the oil and gas industry in 2019 with 45% of respondents putting it at number one and 15% putting R&D in the pipeline sector at number five. A tight focus on efficiency has been the status quo across the oil and gas industry ever since the downturn in 2014. It comes as little surprise, then, that much of the industry’s research and development (R&D) spend is focused on technologies to enhance the efficiency of new projects or existing operations. PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 3 EDITORIAL Kaare Helle Innovation Manager at DNV GL - Oil & Gas Digitalization and data-smart technologies are core to the strategies of many organisations and vital to contain costs, improve safety and reduce downtime. At DNV GL we see the following as some of key digital technologies influencing the pipeline industry: • • • • • • • • Blockchain- Decentralized energy transactions, metering and billing. Artificial intelligence/Machine learning- Enhanced forecasting models, new insights into large operational asset data sets. Data platforms - Data sharing between asset owners, operators, regulators and investors, DNV GL’s platform Veracity being an example. Drones and remote sensing - Enhanced safety through use of drones for pipeline inspections, monitoring using satellite data. Mobile connectivity and tablet devices - Mobile and tablet devices to standardize field-based workflow and automate data collection. Big data and data management - Benchmarking of asset performance, application of machine learning across large numbers of diverse assets. Application programming interface (API) and software as a service (SAAS) - Engineering and analytic models provided and shared between stakeholders enabling enhanced cooperation between stakeholders. Digital twins - Pipeline digital twins for remaining life calculations, failure and reliability forecasts. So, looking into the future we believe new pipelines, including cross-border and national transmission systems, LNG export and receiving terminals, LNG bunkering and LNG carriers of varying scale will all be required as the industry connects new sources of supply with changing demand centres. Decarbonization, digitalization and the now ingrained need for cost-effi- ciency, will help create the reshaped pipeline sector of the future. This issue of ptj will highlight some of the key digital transformations we are seeing in the pipeline industry including pipeline performance, maintenance and integrity management. Yours, Kaare Helle > Kaare Helle, Innovation Manager, DNV GL - Oil & Gas
4 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL THIS ISSUE’S COMPLETE CONTENT MAY 2019 / ISSUE 3 Operations & Integrity Management and Compliance in an age of IIOT Steve Hill Honeywell Process Automation Solutions 6 Intelligent Predictive Maintenance in the context of Maintenance 4.0 for Oil & Gas Industry Dr. Rama Srinivasan Velmurugan GAIL (India) 16 The Big Data Revolution: Detecting Pipeline Leaks, Encroachments and more Using Satellites John Zhou & Caroline Beck Satelytics 28 New Technologies Drive Operational Performance by Connecting Smart Stations to Distribution Networks Rossella Mimmi Emerson Automation Solutions 12 Digital disruption will occur in Midstream as it is underway in other asset intensive industries Sam Hemeda Arundo Analytics 24 Best Practices for Cybersecurity Diagnosis in Industrial Environments Ernesto Landa Compania Operadora de Gas del Amazonas 34 Company Directory Page 42 Pipeline Technology Journal - ptj @pipelinejournal www.pipeline-journal.net Pipeline.Technology.Conference ptc Review 40 Event Calendar 47
Operations & Integrity Management and Compliance in an age of IIOT Steve Hill > Honeywell Process Automation Solutions Abstract There are approximately 4 million miles of pipelines spanning some 120 countries across the globe, carrying oil, gas and other potentially volatile liquids and gases. The pipelines cross deserts, oceans and some of the most inhospitable environments known to man. Honeywell have provided control systems for pipelines for over 30 years, and now we see how IIOT is being used by Maintenance and Operations staff with innovations such as Intelligent Wearables to bring plant critical data back to a central location and how it can be analysed and used to make the right decisions expediently. UAV’s are now being used to detect hairline fractures in pipelines, as well as providing high-resolution images to assist with security and maintenance procedures. Remote Operations is becoming more prevalent with the shortage of skilled personnel driving this demand, we will share some of the technologies involved in this solution, along with this we will also discuss what the modern control room looks like and the drivers to replace Modbus and how this forms part of a modern Cyber Secure facility. The move from Operation to Business Management and how technology can empower staff to combine the knowledge they have with powerful analytics to make intelligent decisions is leading to increased profitability with the knowledge the process is being managed with the highest level of safety.
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 7 INTRODUCTION As IIOT, EU legislation, local government, HSE and cyber and physical security challenges converge to provide every more complex challenges for today’s pipeline operator, we will take a look at some of the advances that have been made to help ease the burden of operation and management. We will visit in general terms how this technology is being adopted and then late look at the steps one would need to take to embark upon a programme of adoption for the technologies we will discuss. Finally, we will summarise the current situation and look at how IIOT will influence us all going forwards. NEW TECHNOLOGIES We all know how industry lags adoption of new technology, this is both due to the conservative nature of the industry and the time taken to convert innovation to a meaningful solution that is readily understood and hence adoptable. Taking advantage of technology such as Microsoft’s HoloLens, we are able to tackle one of the issues industry faces with retiring workforce leading to knowledge loss and also the shift in learning styles forced on us by the Millenni- al Generation. We can now train maintenance and opera- tions staff in a safe environment using a training method they are both familiar and comfortable with to give a ‘pick up and go’ method which can be revisited to refresh and reinforce learning at a pace to suit the individual in a location convenient for the user and their manager. Figure 2: The evolution of control systems Figure 3: IIOT and its influence on technology As a result of this we now see how Intelligent Wearables can be used to train new staff, supplement & refresh the knowl- edge of experienced operators and provide cutting edge remote diagnostic data to the right people, propitiously. Figure 1: Intelligent Wearables & Augmented Reality (AR) As technology advances and processes which previously relied upon manual intervention become more automated, we have seen the changes and improvements in safety as a result of automation. This change is relentless and we now see a new generation dealing with the innovation shown in figure 3. Figure 4: Connecting the right people at the right time The modern worker can learn at their own pace, refresh their learning at a time to suit them and gain valuable insight and learning from more-experienced staff, ensuring operational safety, knowledge retention and reduced downtime.
8 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY Figure 5: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Another technology that has come to the fore in recent years is the UAV or ‘Drone’. Originally seen as a novelty, the enhancements such as lift technology, GPS, gyroscopic stabilisation, 4k camera miniturisation and lithium battery technology and, most importanly of all, the intelligent soft- ware advances, have meant that these units are now used for a variety of industrial applications, such as :- Pipeline Inspection Crack detection • • • Maintenance inspections • • • • • GIS mapping Flarestack inspections Solar farm inspections Security routines Vegetation management This technology, in the hands of trained pilots, along with the right analytical software is attracting new clients every week, making operations safer, proactive and more cost-effective, as well as streamlining maintenance routines and providing access to topographically and geo- graphically challenging terrains. er layer of responsibility is introduced for an increasingly pressurised work-force to manage. This is exacerbated by the retirement of the ‘Baby-Boomers’ and ‘Generation X’ taking with it a valuable amount of knowledge and experience which is very difficult to capture and transition to a modern workforce, who are extremely capable but have not benefited from the experience and learning the transition from pneumatics to electronic processes have afforded the earlier generations. Figure 7: Mitigation of risk We need a comprehensive solution with several touchpoints to address the various risks industries face. If we look at the physical and the logical, they each bring their own set of unique challenges. From the physical perspective, we have USB-interfaces hosting keyboards, mice, pen-drives etc, RJ-45, serial and parallel (for us older users!) amongst others. The logical entry points are innumerable but not unmanage- able. Layered defence is the best approach: using advanced threat intelligence; live risk management reporting on Network & Endpoint security, Patching and Back-up status and physical checkpointing of hardware all backed up by an over-arching remote Security Operations Centre. Legislation, external forces and technol- ogy are forcing companies to look to the future, today Steve Hill “ REMOTE OPERATIONS Figure 6: The rise of Cyber attacks With the introduction of legislation and regulation such as ISO 27001 and IEC 27443 and the Directive on Security of Network & Information Systems (the NIS Directive) anoth- Traditionally remote operations were the preserve of clients with pipelines assets in uninhabitable or hard to reach locations. There is now a real push to locate services and applications in datacentres (either managed by third-parties like Microsoft or by the client themselves), this is driven by the lack of IT resources needed to manage the server infrastructure, including patching, upgrades, maintenance and repair or to capitalise on much reduced CAPEX costs involved in a remote installation, preferring instead to move to a predictable SaaS model.
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 9 Figure 8: Typical remote SCADA architecture We can see from model above that we have a much-re- duced hardware footprint, this also means that initial start-up can be much quicker, providing meaningful data from project kick-off in less than two weeks in some cases. The engine remains the same, so technicians don’t need to learn new system configuration or architectures, it’s just a remote model. there has been a concerted drive to replace Modbus to ad- dress the security issues it exposes, such as user authenti- cation, certification, endpoint protection issues or the ability to view the data with readily available sniffer software. Even if we do decide to secure it, it’s not a low-cost solution nor is it widely adopted. SECURITY CONCERNS Modern datacentres attract the most investment, have the best physical & logical security and have some of the best engineers operating and maintain- ing their systems. Users pay to access their data securely across the globe 24*7, clients from banking, pharmaceutical, security, accounting and government agencies have used these facilities for several years, so it’s not new, it’s just new to pipelines. MODBUS REPLACEMENT Figure 9: OPC vertical and horizontal integration Modbus has served us well since its inception by Modicon at the end of the 1970’s. Once you had mastered its idiosyn- crasies it was easy to apply across a number of systems, regardless of manufacturer. However, in the last few years With the mass adoption of OPC-UA since its introduction several years ago, Modbus is slowly being replaced as users become more security conscious and data hungry. OPC-UA has a number advantages; it is plug-and-play, if you follow guideline implementation suggestions it has good protec- tion out of the box, packet security can be added readily, data integration with third-parties is supported allowing secure passage of data from sensor to Enterprise level easily.
10 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY Multi-platform support is provided and the migration path from legacy OPC is straightforward. incorporating, ICSS, DCS, ESD, F&G and PABX onto a single working environment capable of safe operation by one or two operations staff. THE MODERN CONTROL ROOM So, what does the modern control room look like? What does it offer the operator and how does it allow them to move from Pipeline Operator to Pipeline Business Operator? WHERE TO START? How do we start to incorporate this thinking into our new or existing projects? no longer an option… it’s a must Embracing technology and adapting is Steve Hill “ UAV Figure 10: Operations, Engineering & Management collaboration The figure above shows us what is happening now, we can use Collaboration Stations to share ideas, data-sheets, P&ID’s and live video streams to analyse pipeline operations in real-time and make sound business decisions rapidly us- ing the most up-to-date information. If we then couple this with intelligence we can import from Wearable Solutions in conjunction with input from experts who can also access the live data remotely and provide input via Skype or other video streaming tools, we can start to see how the Operator moves towards a Business Operator role because they have the correct information, at the right time with the best anal- ysis, allowing them to move from a reactive to proactive/ predictive operational standpoint. Figure 11: The Orion Console The advances we have made in recent times bringing this data together complements the solutions we have had for many years with our Console Stations shown below, If we look at UAV technology, the hardware costs have fallen and sophisticated units can be made available for a tenth of the cost they were even five years ago, couple that with the advanced analytical software that has been developed and the availability of certified pilots and it can seen that this offering is within reach, starting with proof of concept programme offerings to establish value, through to fully managed support contracts with training, reporting and remedial capabilities with three deployment centres in Central Europe alone. INTELLIGENT WEARABLES Intelligent Wearables have been adopted by a number of major Oil & Gas companies, the ability to train, maintain and inform in real-time is seen as a major benefit and, according to independent research, is welcomed by the ‘Millennial Generation’ who demand instant information access and have been proven to respond well to this delivery method as opposed to the traditional classroom approach (which still has a place for certain trainees). Trial programmes are again available and the range of product and solution training we offer is growing all the while. CYBER SECURITY As of May 2018, Governments were under obligation in Europe to identify Critical Infrastructure as part of the NIST directive. At Honeywell, we have worked closely with industry to provide consultative services as well as engineering support to analyse customer’s needs, implement protection programmes and provide ongoing 24*7 support to provide piece of mind, active threat analysis and on-line patching. We can also offer ‘Ethical Hacking’ to pressure test systems as part of our consultative service in order to establish a base- line for new clients prior to putting together a solution. This is augmented by our hardware solutions including SMX, or Se-
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 11 cure Media Exchange, available in both ruggedised (RT) and non-ruggedised (ST) versions to provide gatekeeper services where USB pen-drives are part of normal operations. REMOTE OPERATIONS Imagine being able to go from letter of intent to first informa- tion delivery in a matter of weeks, well, that is one of the ben- efits of Remote SCADA, smooth transitioning from a legacy system to Remote SCADA is key to a successful project, and this is what we can offer as part of a turnkey solution. MODBUS REPLACEMENT Documentation and comprehensive survey works help us to map a legacy system for transition to OPC, we can use Matrikon, FieldServer protocol, Matrikon or even Kepware to as an interim measure as we map the legacy system before replacing the hardware as part of a longer-term project, this is often done as part of a DCS migration or upgrade and is a common requirement for our project teams. Owners of oil and gas pipelines need to recognise that the most important elements of a security program (both physical and digital) are identifying business risks, being proactive, embracing a security philosophy, and devel- oping a long-term strategy that eliminates (or reduces) potential threats. In order to protect their systems and networks, pipeline operators require a comprehensive approach to new technol- ogy, cyber security and innovative adoption policies which involves ongoing risk assessment, well-defined security poli- cies and an aggressive overall security posture. This will lead to safer operating and working environments, lower OPEX costs and increased margins if implemented successfully. “ Digital transformation affects all industry and it’s becoming more important to ensure your process and operations keep pace, or risk getting left behind Steve Hill CONTROL ROOM MODERNISATION Author With the capability to survey, supply, install and configure a comprehensive range of control room furniture, in conjunc- tion or separately to our control system solutions, Honey- well are very experienced in offering client’s consultation to ensure adherence to the latest NAMUR & EEMUA guidelines as well as HSE guidelines for Operator heating, lighting and ventilation requirements. Adopting our Collaboration Station solution has proved very popular with customers and has enriched operators role as the more mundane tasks become automated (and hence, not overlooked), allowing them to concentrate on more interesting and compelling tasks lead them to start to act as Business Managers of the systems they oversee and providing them with the necessary data in a timely manner to allow informed business decisions which are backed-up with reporting to ensure the correct decision is made at the right time. CONCLUSION Honeywell have a range of scaleable solutions designed for small, medium and large scale pipeline owners and oper- ators. Our full lifetime service starts with our best-in-class auditing services followed by planning, installation & imple- mentation. This is followed by post-installation maintenance and constantly-current hardware and software offering, providing piece of mind, cost-effective implementation and the reassurance of a world-wide support network. Steve Hill Honeywell Process Solutions Midstream Oil & Gas Pipeline Specialist Stephen.firstname.lastname@example.org OFFICIAL MEDIA OF
New Technologies Drive Operational Performance by Connecting Smart Stations to Distribution Networks Rossella Mimmi > Emerson Automation Solutions Abstract Natural Gas distribution companies have been historically slow to adopt new technologies, especially so-called “Smart” technologies, in their networks. Their counterparts in electric utilities, process plants, and even gas transmission have widely adopted connected components and solutions to quickly give them access to data to make decisions, improve the safety of their systems, and provide them with the functionality they need to improve their operations. Recently, the Natural Gas distribution segment has begun to catch up by adopting these types of technologies to enjoy similar results. Solution providers in the industry have developed customized systems for customers and when coupled with a digital ecosystem, they can drive substantial value for gas utility companies.
INDUSTRY CHALLENGES There are several challenges that Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution companies are facing in these days. Together with traditional Natural Gas sources, other sources are becoming relevant, such as LNG and fracking gas. The increased attention to the environment and the necessity to comply to European directives is incentivizing the use of Biomethane, coming from renewable sources; private and public companies are now interested in the production of Biomethane that can be injected into the Natural Gas grid. Of course, the gas supply diversification must be controlled. Gas utilities have clear objectives to meet the target quantity for each source, but they need to ensure that the gas quality is acceptable before injection. In addition, the unconventional sources must be seamlessly integrated into the grid, so op- erators can take advantages of them when they are available but can also count on traditional sources if necessary. The environmental cause is driving also the need of a drastic reduction of emissions and energy consumption; the impact of GHG emissions on the atmosphere is well known, and the gas industry is evaluating different solutions to reduce emissions and optimize energy consumption. The customer base has to be adjusted and expanded to include more users and new usages such as Natural Gas vehicles. In the meantime, it’s necessary to remember that Natural Gas is potentially a dangerous fluid, so the attention to safety must be higher than ever to minimize accidents and their undesirable outcome: leakage, possible interruption in gas delivery and, in the worst cases, explo- sions that can cause harm to pipelines, devices and people. Among the safety concerns also noise must be included, as it can be considered as a potential issue; it’s important to reduce it as much as possible, especially in the countries where pressure reducing stations are installed in areas with a high population density. Figure 1: Axial Flow Pressure Regulators equipped with RAF system RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 13 Cost reduction is another important challenge for gas companies. In many cases budgets have been reduced, and companies have now to perform the same activities and reach the same goals with reduced resources. This brings the necessity to optimize resources and possibly reduce some of their activities on site. With reference to equipment, an improved reliability (achieved, from exam- ple, from avoiding working at stress limit) means reduced unplanned maintenance activities and, at the end, lower ownership costs. At the distribution end, new pressure reducing and me- tering stations are oversized, include redundant layers of safety, and are set at higher than necessary pressure to anticipate further demand growth, or plan for failures and emergency demand picks. Several manual adjustments are required to modify the district station set point, in order to operate at the required pressure levels and fulfill vari- able demand requirements from users (seasonal demand variations but also different consumption values during the day). This activity is time consuming and requires dedicated personnel to be on site. This is more true and challenging if it is considered that gas grids are designed to satisfy the maximum demand in the extreme operating conditions, that typically happens once or twice a year (or sometimes never) and for a limited time frame. This means that gas grids are normally operated at the highest pressure level to ensure gas availability during high demand periods. These practices increase upfront investments, creates stress on the pressure management equipment, while higher set pressure results in downstream gas leakages. OBJECTIVES & STRATEGIES Several years ago, gas distribution companies launched their first foray into value-driving technology when they began to adopt smart metering to improve the accuracy and efficiency of their billing. Now in various parts of the world, these companies are more willing to experiment with technology that can give operators the ability to monitor system parameters, manage the flow of gas through their network, and control individual stations from remote loca- tions. The complete system benefits include improvement in safety, reliability, operational efficiency and profitability, while giving operators greater visibility and control of their gas systems. This article explores the key strategies that gas distribution companies are employing today and how interconnected “Smart” systems are driving value for key stakeholders in these organizations. During our analysis, we determined that companies in this space have four common themes which drive the basis of their strategic priorities:
14 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY Improvement in Gas Delivery Efficiency 1. System Risk Management 2. 3. Emphasis on System Infrastructure and Design 4. Environmental Stewardship All the critical strategies just described often come with exe- cution challenges that cost operators unnecessary expenses and lost product. However, advancements in technology available to gas distribution will effectively address all four of these common themes. Using innovative and interconnected solutions through the entire lifecycle of Natural Gas, especially in Distribution, allows companies to optimize their operations, keeping an optimal timing, utilizing resources in a more effective way and improve systems safety. SOLUTIONS & METHODOLOGIES What are the features and functionality of “Smart” gas systems, and how can they assist distribution companies in achieving their strategic goals? Smart technologies are essentially scalable systems which enable local and remote control and monitoring of the pressure reducing stations. They are based on dedicated logic, and they can be customized to meet customers’ specific requirements. existing networks is also vitally important for the success of any system upgrade. Local and remote communication capabilities (webserver, USB, Ethernet, GPRS, etc.) and the possibility to interface with existing SCADA system (through MODBUS, TCP/UIP Protocols) are desirable features of equipment in such networks. Let’s now analyze the more interesting functionalities. SAFETY AND RISK MANAGEMENT: The ability to remotely monitor and operate smart gas systems is one of the main advantages of this technology. Not only are operators able to manage the system quicker, but also fewer trips to the field are required, meaning fewer safety concerns from sending people to remote and potentially hazardous areas. Noise levels are a common concern at such stations; this technology enables mainte- nance personnel to distance themselves from high noise levels. The system is also able to split the total flow into more lines and control the flow through each regulator, further reducing the noise emitted from a station. In addition, the capability of precisely control the flow in each of the reducing line has a positive effect on the regulators, enabling them to work in their ideal range and avoiding unnecessary stress on these devices. Figure 2: Smart Skid Demo Unit These systems consist of a central unit which receives system parameters (temperature, pressure, flow), processes that information, controls pressure management equipment and interfaces with control loops. It could be used at an indi- vidual station or for multiple pressure reducing and metering points across the distribution grid. An interface can control various components such as solenoid valves, pressure transducers, and temperature sensors. Communication with Figure 3: Axial Flow Pressure Regulators equipped with RAF system Another application of Smart technologies is represented by odorant injection systems. Gas needs to be odorized to ensure that eventual leaks can be immediately smelled. The quantity of odorant liquid to inject into the gas must be very accurate; both under-odorization and over-odorization bring some issues. In case of under-odorization, the gas will not be correctly odorized and that brings a high safety concern in case of a leak. On the other end, over-odorization can expose all devices to a potential risk (odorant liquid is highly corro- sive) and ownership costs will increase due to the high cost of the liquid. Moreover, a small discharge of gas during, for example, the opening of a relief valve, will cause an intense
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 15 Taking this a step further, control loops have been pro- grammed to balance, locally and in real time, the supply/ demand ratio. Additionally, the system can collect data to use in predictive analytics and forecasting which can later be used in elaborate predictive maintenance algorithms. This enables distribution companies to better utilize their man- power for maintenance tasks and operations that must be performed locally from the time of installation. ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP: Through remote monitoring and tighter control of system pressure, the average pressure in the grid can be lowered, therefore lowering stress on system joints and piping. In addition, as there is a link between the operating pressure in a network and the leakage and emissions rate, it will be possible to limit this risk by lowering the grid pressure; this will result in cost saving, avoiding discharging gas into the atmosphere, and protection for the environment. It has already been mentioned the system capability of working with Biomethane and integrating the new sta- tions that are being built; Biomethane is considered a renewable gas and its injection into the grid contributes to meet the European Union renewable energy targets and contrast climate change. RESULTS Many control systems developed by industry experts can generate continuous savings and even a return on invest- ment in less than a year, depending on the size of the network and the complexity of the system. At the net- work level, the system advances critical strategies of gas utilities through smarter grid management and savings in maintenance costs, lost gas, and more efficient resource deployment. By embracing these new technologies and tapping into vast solution expertise in the space, distribution companies can reach peak operational performance while also improving their safety and environmental metrics in the process. Author Rossella Mimmi Emerson Automation Solutions Business Development Manager for Pressure Development email@example.com odor resulting in many calls to the authorities. Smart equip- ment can be installed in odorant injection systems to reduce complexity of the process and ensure that a very accurate mixture of gas and odorant is injected into the grid. GAS DELIVERY EFFICIENCY: The ability to estimate gas flow where no meter is installed and monitor other parameters (temperature and pressure) at multiple points allows accurate flow/pressure mapping across the grid. During standard operation, the user could utilize this information to properly balance the grid by ad- justing pressure setpoints, thereby remotely accommodating seasonal changes in downstream demand. It will also be possible to control each regulating line, de- ciding the exact flow rate that flows through it, and even to close one line by bringing the pressure regulator in closing mode. This will allow the regulators to work in the prop- er range, avoiding stress limits and reducing unplanned maintenance interventions and risk of interrupted delivery. Another great application of these smart technologies is relevant to the gas pre-heating. Natural Gas, depending on the weather conditions and the reference country, can have a very low temperature that can become dangerous when the pressure is reduced, causing the water particles inside the gas to freeze and possibly obstruct the small tubing inside the pilots. To avoid this, it is necessary to pre-heat the gas using, for example, gas/water heat exchangers. If the energy consumption is not optimized, there is the risk to heat the water when it’s not necessary (for example in case of no flow), wasting energy. Smart technologies can now manage the boiler room and control, with a high accuracy, the inlet and outlet temperatures of both gas and water, optimizing energy consumption and reducing unnecessary costs. In Fiscal Measurement applications, the possibility of controlling the flow capacity in each line will help guaran- tee Custody Transfer accuracy and ensure compliance to regulations. The system will close the line when the flow rate will decrease under the limit guaranteed to ensure the measurement accuracy requested by the Standards. SYSTEM INFRASTRUCTURE AND DESIGN: Often when distribution companies build out their in- frastructure, they tend to oversize the regulating station because the commercial or residential demand downstream has yet to be established. When grid upgrades are consid- ered, smart systems can limit oversizing. And as Natural Gas supply becomes more diverse, for example the expand- ed use of biomethane, new technologies can seamlessly balance various gas sources at grid injection points and manage gas quality for non-traditional gas sources with no change in system operating conditions.
Intelligent Predictive Maintenance in the context of Maintenance 4.0 for Oil & Gas Industry Dr. Rama Srinivasan Velmurugan > GAIL (India) Abstract Scenario of oil prices fluctuations has not only forced inefficient Oil & Gas companies to improve their productivity and supply chain costs, but it will also push the efficient companies to find ways to protect their top & bottom lines. A set of new digital technologies such as Internet of Things (IoT), Industry 4.0 promises to aid Oil & Gas companies tack- le the challenges arising out in this new oil price regime. IoT basically integrates sensing, communications, and ana- lytics capabilities of equipment, infrastructure like pipelines, etc. using digital technology and to manage their existing assets in an efficient manner. Thus, purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of these new digital technologies on predictive maintenance practices. A detailed literature survey has been carried out in order to identify and describe the conceptual constructs contributing to predictive maintenance within a Maintenance 4.0 setting such as value creation through Internet of Services (IoS), Internet of Things (IoT), Smart Solutions (SS), Smart Factory (SF), Cloud Computing (CC). Further, a survey through Focus Group Discussions/ Semi-structured Interviews was conducted in Indian Oil & Gas companies with reference to identified conceptual constructs. A conceptual Intelligent Predictive Maintenance (IPM) framework and CSSI (Create-Share-Synthesize-Implement) model have been developed in this study for the aspects related to IPM such as value creation through smart services, remote- service delivery, smart solutions & digital innovation, digital analytics, data-driven operational excellence, machine-to-ma- chine communication, and mobile & cloud computing and merits of this framework. This study shows that it is possible to perform & provide a remote technical assistance and asset maintenance support using intelligent sensors, real time condition monitoring, predicate analytics, and distributive system technologies with need of least manual intervention. IPM framework and CSSI model is beneficial to practitioners such as asset maintenance engineers and managers in the midstream Oil & Gas companies in the industry in order to decide on the development of IPM infrastructure and its implementation in their organizations. Key challenges with recommended actions based on IPM framework are also proposed.
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 17 1.0 INTRODUCTION The industrial revolutions were always led by new technolo- gy developments happened in the industry. Industry 1.0 was the result of invention of water and steam mechanical equip- ment and its manufacturing at the end of the 18th Century. The second major industrial revolution Industry 2.0 was the use of conveyor belts for assembly lines during the starting of the year 1900. The new technology development of micro- electronics used Personal Computers (PC) & Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) for automation purposes in manu- facturing industry in the 1970’s led to third major industrial revolution Industry 3.0. Now, the development of connectiv- ity of PCs and equipment throughout large networks named as Internet could enable the Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) which leads to fourth industrial revolution- Industry 4.0 (Indsutrie4.0_Report, 2013). This connectivity technology is playing crucial role in the industry where internet enables growing number of devices become web-enabled and these concepts would be applied to improve manufacturing efficiencies. This kind of appli- cation is referred as Internet of Things (IoT). The industry experts estimate that worldwide 80% of organizations will implement IoT applications into their businesses in some or other way in next five years’ time. Further, Internet of Things is a crucial driver to deliver 2% to 3% additional revenue in the business (Koch, Geissbauer, & Schrauf, 2014). There are four basic elements in IoT such as Device, Con- nectivity with the device, Data and Analytics of the data. The device could be from one sensor to a large-scale control sys- tem. The data generated by the sensor or control system are collected through the network connectivity. And, the analysis of these data to prepare actionable information would help industry managers to make informed decisions in business problems (Zorzi, Gluhak, Lange, & Bassi, 2010). Application of IoT to drive new insights and optimizations of manufacturing process and overall supply chain in industry is referred as Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). The major challenges in maintenance are the technology left unused completely even after implementation of systems like Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS) because it failed to address the specific industry needs, reactive approach to maintenance, design mistakes & failures of sensors due its complexity and maintainability, and the skilled manpower to handle such sophisticated and automated systems. One of the solutions to these issues is implementation of Intelligent Predictive Maintenance (IPM) using IIoT technology which expands conventional condi- tion monitoring approaches by offering an insight into the “equipment’s future”. It is therefore providing new alterna- tives for increasing efficiency and reducing the Total Cost of Ownership (Schaeffler Technologies AG & Co., 2015). Oil & Gas organizations in the industry have also started using the basic principles of IoT and Industry 4.0 to imple- ment the interconnected equipment and systems in order to form an intelligent network spanning its entire value chain. This type of selfcontrolled network systems helps to identify the unexpected changes in the production process, predict equipment failures and also to prompt timely main- tenance actions using Intelligent Predictive Maintenance (IPM) framework (World Economic Forum, 2015) The Maintenance 4.0 technology enabled just-in time IPM helps Oil & Gas organizations to achieve near-zero down- time in operations. In an industry as diverse as Oil & Gas, there is no one IPM framework fits to all. But, there are three business objectives relevant to IPM framework in O & G Industry: improving reliability, optimizing operations and creating new value across value chain. However, O & G organizations in mid-stream business can understand the impediments to value creation across hydrocarbon supply chain such higher pipeline network integrity, new com- mercial activities etc. and position themselves to capture maximum out of Maintenance 4.0 IPM framework (Michael & Mark, 2015). The conceptual constructs contributing to predictive maintenance within a Maintenance 4.0 setting such as value creation through Internet of Services (IoS), Internet of Things (IoT), Smart Solutions (SS), Smart Factory (SF), Cloud Computing (CC) with reference to maintenance manage- ment are reviewed and discussed in detail in this paper. Further, it is also discussed the influence of these factors in maintenance at Oil & Gas organizations. The structure of this paper is as given under: In Section 2, the concepts and background of the above conceptual constructs with respect to predictive mainte- nance in the context of Maintenance 4.0 are provided. In Section 3, IoT deployments in mid-stream O & G organi- zations to create flow information around the value loop which are most relevant to a given business opportunity are discussed in detail. This section also presents the key bottlenecks and addresses the solutions to them. In Section 4, a conceptual framework for implementing intel- ligent predictive maintenance system within Maintenance 4.0 environment in mid-stream O & G organizations in the industry is proposed and discussed. In Section 5, the merits of the proposed IPM conceptual framework are deliberated and also highlighted the key challenges with recommended actions to overcome present maintenance challenges in the industry. Section 6 concludes with contributions, future scope and limitations of this study.
18 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY 2.0 INTELLIGENT PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE – MAINTENANCE 4.0 CONCEPTUAL CONSTRUCTS 2.3 SMART SOLUTIONS 2.1 INTERNET OF SERVICES The data emerged in the age of Internet of information is named as Internet of Services (IoS). The two key contribu- tors for technological or business purposes are Web Service Interface (WSI) and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) (schroth & Janner, 2007). The purpose of these services avail- able in these platforms is interconnection of people, process, objects and systems. It can also facilitate features such as adaptability, collaborative use application support, and process deployment of diverse mobile end devices along the lines of the system software applications with safety, securi- ty and reliability guarantee (Industrie4.0_Final_Report, 2013). This can be explained with an industrial application such as that one cross country pipeline network located in south part of the country can be connected to another cross-country pipeline network located in north part of the country through system application software in order to access the process parameters such pressure, temperature, flow, etc. so that the information can be used to optimize the operations & maintenance of pipelines. The benefits of IoS/Smart Services should be utilization of resources based on online data. One of the examples to such kind of application is the oil compa- ny (Total) can able to get maintenance decision support for its new Martin Linge Field in Norway based on maintenance data from their older Ofon Field in River Niger’s delta area of Nigeria through cloud-based data service. 2.2 CLOUD COMPUTING The definition of Cloud computing: it is a model for enabling ubiquitous, expedient, on-demand network access to a shared poll of configurable computing resources such as networks, servers, storage, applications and services. Cloud computing can be rapidly stipulated and released with least management effort or service provider interaction (Mell & Grance, 2011). Therefore, Cloud computing is a cluster of service that can be leveraged using Industry 4.0 concepts (Bai, Ma, & Zhu, 2012). This theory defined the three major components of Cloud computing model with the following compositions: Five essential characteristics such as On-de- mand self-service, Broad network access, Resource pooling, Rapid elasticity, and measured services; Three service mod- els like Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). Four deploy- ment models such as Private cloud, Community cloud, Public cloud, and Hybrid cloud. Cloud computing helps to share the huge amount data emerged out of Intelligent Predictive Maintenance infrastructure. Maintenance 4.0 concepts are the key to a thriving Oil & Gas Sector in the future. Smart Solutions can be factored in to both Smart Products and Smart Services. Smart Products are also called as Cyber Physical Systems (CPS). These smart products are offering new features and functions based on network connectivity. Smart services open up ways for new business models & markets through innovative deliv- ery models and service assistance. These smart solutions integrate selfmanagement and communication capabilities. Then, this can trigger new business models in the age of decentralized decision making and independent operations (Lee & Wang, New technologies for maintenance in complex system maintenance handbook, 2008). The smart products are equipped with Cyber Physical System with the ability to do equipment-to-equipment communication, embedded in- terfaces and enables interaction with human users. The con- cept can be extended to Cyber Physical Production Systems (CPPS) in an industrial maintenance scenario. The smart solutions have the advantages such as indicates early warn- ings, mitigate surprises, etc. Therefore, any smart solution is well suited to predictive maintenance applications within the ambit of the industrial internet. One such example can be Gas Turbines interacting with social & equipment networks to decide on its service needs. This means operator requires attention only when Gas Turbine triggers for maintenance support. Further, smart products could also able to self-main- tain its configuration & function during its lifecycle based on interconnectivity with OEM who can able to provide wealth of information for product optimization and innovation. 2.4 INTERNET OF THINGS Today the internet connectivity provides connection over one billion of people through social network platforms. The in- vention of advanced and cheaper sensing devices connected through internet protocol IPv6 networking helps to manage such kind of wide connectivity throughout world. Basically, the wide network is managed by assigning Internet Proto- col (IP) addresses to every sensing device such as sensor, actuator or any other object. All these devices are networked directly with the Internet using IP addresses (Indsutrie4.0_ Report, 2013). Therefore, The Internet of Things refers to such kind of insidious network society in which a lot of objects are connected to have common connectivity in order to share information (Yan, Zhang, Yang, & Ning, 2008). IoT can be views as a subset of the Cyber Physical Systems which is discussed above. Authors interchangeably use these terms IoT & CPS with the influence of their area (or) region in which they carry out their research.
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 19 2.5 SMART FACTORY The Smart Factory constitutes one of the components of Maintenance 4.0 in line with the vision for Industry 4.0. Smart Factory consists of a set of networked arrays of equip- ment, a new plane of self-organization and process optimi- zation is enabled in the form of Decentralized Production Control. Secondly, the wealth of operations related informa- tion which also provides the basis for Data-driven Operation- al Excellence (Lucke, Constantinescu, & Westkamper, 2008). The major components of the Smart Factory are Calm-Sys- tem (Hardware) and the context-aware applications (Soft- ware). These components use network logic and advanced computing process to create virtual duplicate physical systems. The systems built on smart factory concepts should be robust, resistant to disturbances to enable the physical sensor data update through real-time virtual representations. Further, these systems should also accommodate the faster recovery from failures using self-healing processes. In order to measure, calculate and collate the information about the machine performance, predictive health conditions on real time basis from physical data (sensors), smart algorithms are performed and processed in the cyberspace (Lee, Kao, & Yang, Service innovation and smart analytics for Industry 4.0 and big data environment, 2014). Smart Factory concept is a vision for the manufacturing plant where operations form part of an intelligent system and all the equipment are integrated by means of Machine-to-Ma- chine (M2M) communication or other intelligent algorithms. Factories of the Future (FoF) concept with in an environment of Smart Factory will be an environment occupied with large amounts of small intelligent devices interfaced and com- municating in a collaborative way to create an overall smart system. This approach is shared network of loosely coupled and decentralized intelligent devices and this network is ca- pable for a system to easily adapt and reconfigure in order to meet the demands of the business (Colombo & Karnouskos, 2009). FoF feature is based on customer centric approach in the business processes and increasing the product quali- ty and specifications (Souza, Sacco, & Porto, 2015). It also envisioned the sustainability into the manufacturing environ- ment for aiming higher productions and zero-defect toleranc- es with the energy efficiency. 3.0 MIDSTREAM OIL & GAS COMPANIES: TRANS- FORMING STRATEGIES WITH MAINTENANCE 4.0 In the midstream sector of Oil & Gas Industry, there are rais- ing concerns of business complexity due to more dynamic model of transporting variable volumes and grades of prod- ucts from multiple locations to new end markets and users. The concern of business complexity includes the following challenges: Ageing of pipeline networks, legacy & manual monitoring, and old control devices. Even in the developed country like USA, the estimated annual loss is $10 billion due to fuel leaks and thefts (Penn Energy, 2014). The immediate shift in the sector is required towards investment in data-en- abled infrastructure instead of conventional hardware and software physical devices of pressure, temperature, vibration, level, etc. Therefore, the sensors should be smart enabled product which can create new data for predictive mainte- nance analysis. The fact is midstream Oil & Gas companies are lagging behind than other companies in the industry (Lars Larsson, 2014). Few oil & gas companies (e.g. TransCanada, Enbridge, and PG & E) in this sector are working towards mitigating the above bottleneck of creating new data by installing advanced smart sensors inside and outside of oil & gas transporting pipelines. The four new technologies being test by these oil companies (TransCanada, 2014) are as follows: Vapor-sens- ing tubes to see bitumen spilled by shooting air down a tube; Fiber optic cable to feel the temperature variations caused by bitumen leaking into ambient soil; Hydrocarbon sensing cables that send electric signals to smell hydrocarbons; Fiber optic distributed acoustic sensing system to hear sound variations and can indicate pipeline leak (Jesse, 2014). As shown in above example the pipeline safety is the core interest of all the Oil & Gas companies in the mid-stream sector since a spillage from pipelines can lead to higher costs and tighter regulations for the entire industry. There- fore, the companies are preparing themselves for develop- ing a data-enabled monitoring infrastructure. Midstream companies would accumulate a competitive and commercial advantage if they perform network wide product and flow data reconciliation. The estimate shows that 150, 000 miles of pipeline generates 10 terabytes of data which an amount of data equal to the complete printed collection of the Library of Congress (General Electric, 2014). The midstream Oil & Gas companies can put forward in- sights of new created data across its pipelines, helping the transporters to find better ways to market and charging the consumers differently for having route options in contracts. Pricing incentives that encourages producers and end users to smooth volumes can be forecasted using historic volumes transported through the pipeline networks (Gautreaux, 2014). The newly created pipeline data along with the data from an export facility, markets, shipping terminals and product grades acquired in a timely manner help the Oil & Gas com- panies to take advantage in predictive maintenance analysis and improving operational efficiency. Further, emerging types of data like equipment data, geo location data, weather data, log data are become useful at high volumes especially when correlated against other data sets according to Horton works (Kohlleffel, 2015).
20 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY The above literature survey concludes that the midstream Oil & Gas companies are targeting for higher network integrity and new commercial opportunities. For creating such huge data across the pipeline networks, sensors play the crucial role. The key solution to the midstream sector is investing in sensors so as to capture every as- pect of the facilities in order to implement the predictive maintenance frameworks. Therefore, the above discus- sion suggested that the key enablers for implementation of intelligent predictive maintenance framework are Reli- ability, Scale of Operations, Pipeline/Asset Integrity, and Creation of data using Sensors. 4.0 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF INTELLI- GENT PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE FOR OIL & GAS COMPANIES IN MIDSTREAM SECTOR In Section 2, Conceptual constructs related to Intelligent Predictive Maintenance (IPM) in the context of Maintenance 4.0 are discussed in detail. In this section, Conceptual constructs emerged out from this study are summarized in the context of Intelligent Predictive Maintenance Framework with the specific reference to Oil & Gas companies. The conceptual constructs identified through literature survey and the key enablers developed from the major reports from Oil & Gas Industry are compared together. Accordingly, a conceptual frame work of Intelligent Predictive Maintenance based on the concepts of Maintenance 4.0 has been developed and presented in Figure 1. P2: Future are the key enablers for Smart Factory Smart Solutions, Cloud Computing and Factories of Smart Factory & Smart Solutions are Growth P3: Drivers for effective implementation of Intelligent Predictive Maintenance in the context of Maintenance 4.0 Reliability, Integrity, Scale of Operations, and Cre- P4: ation of new data using sensors are the major enablers for Intelligent Predictive Maintenance. The major enablers such as Reliability, Integrity, P5: Scale of Operations, and Creation of new data using sensors and the growth drivers such as Smart Factory and Smart Solutions together contributes for effective implementation of IPM. Focus Groups were set up to deliberate on the new devel- opments of Maintenance 4.0 within the environment of Industry 4.0 and the effective implementation of Intelligent Predictive Maintenance based on Maintenance 4.0 con- cepts for midstream Oil & Gas companies in the industry. Focus Group participants were from the senior executives from the midstream Indian Oil & Gas companies. Focus Group discussions were conducted for an hour and the discussions were audio taped and recorded. The Focus Group discussions were conducted by an experienced moderator. The questionnaire was developed based on the above prepositions (P1- P5) and questions were asked in a semi-structured manner (Kruger, 1994). Transcribed interview recordings were analyzed using constant comparison method. This method is undertaken by constant comparison of data and con- trasting data to assess the range of possibilities that emerge from the Data (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). The empirical data emerged out from the data analysis could prove the above prepositions P1 to P5 are valid in the context of Maintenance 4.0. The detailed discussions and results are presented in Section V. 5.0 DISCUSSIONS & RESULTS Figure 1: Intelligent Predictive Maintenance Framework based on Maintenance 4.0 for Midstream Oil & Gas Companies The following prepositions are emerged out from the detailed study of the proposed conceptual IPM framework. Smart Services such as Internet of Services & Smart P1: Products such as Internet of Things are the technology en- ablers to Smart Solutions Maintenance 4.0 could able to provide crucial support in the present business scenario to operations & maintenance in order to sustain operational efficiency and increased productivity. It sug- gests the creation of new business models and also forms the basis for new and novel services. One such example of novel service emerging out in the Oil & Gas industry is dis- tributed cloud-based systems for implementation of Asset
Maintenance. The current paper assesses the Maintenance 4.0 and IoT concepts in terms of Predictive Maintenance application in the context of midstream Oil & Gas companies and emerged out with a conceptual framework with the key growth drivers and major enablers for developing IPM infra- structure. The major theoretical contributions of this paper are the proposed IPM conceptual framework and the CSSI model (Fig. 2) for Predictive Maintenance Implementation de- veloped from the empirical study done through Focus Group Discussions (FGD). Figure 2: CSSI model for Intelligent Predictive Maintenance The CSSI model supports the effective implementation of Intelligent Predictive Maintenance model for midstream Oil & Gas companies. A new data is created using the sensors in the shared and controlled network. Then the information collected from sensors is communicated among the Predic- tive Maintenance infrastructure such as machine to machine, control systems etc. through distributed networks. The standards (legal, technical, regulatory or social) allow that information/data to be aggregated across time and space. The captured information is collectively used to analyze and synthesize then passed on implementation. Further, ana- lytical support systems via technologies that either enables automated predictive maintenance actions or human inter- ventions in a manner leading to improved implementation of Predictive maintenance. The CSSI model developed can be merited with the important results as summarized below: • An increased automation in asset maintenance in the context of Maintenance 4.0 will be beneficial to asset maintenance managers in order to maximize the avail- ability of equipment and quick retrieval of equipment after shutdown. The closed loop model ensures the availability of equipment historical data, predictive infor- mation of particular equipment, and shared information RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 21 • • • since similar equipment are linked through as distrib- uted cloud network globally and also in company’s in- tranet, depending upon its functional configuration. This model integrates well into Maintenance 4.0 Factories of the Future framework discussed in Section 2. IPM framework and CSSA model reduces the human intervention in maintenance, increases the availability of equipment, improves safety performance since most of the predictive maintenance decisions are based on huge new data generated in consultation with Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). The systems developed through IPM framework are using technologies such as Smart Solutions, Cyber Physical Systems, IoT, IoS, Cloud Computing etc. which not only ensures effective and efficient implementa- tion of IPM and it also provides huge cost benefits. The example is Maintenance 4.0 cloud-based asset mainte- nance systems are implemented across the value chain of the organization. The systems installed in the IPM network for remote access will become highly susceptible to attacks with the aim of sabotaging industrial facilities. Organisations need to protect themselves against such attacks from cyber crime sponsored entities, politically motivated hackers, and organized crime. CSSI model suggests that base line information about cyber risk level of produc- tion assets is to be assessed based on the following pa- rameters such as potential damage to facility, technolo- gy/firmware suppliers’ capability, policies on audit trails of application software, quick isolation procedure of compromised component within the distributed system, and system-wide security abstractions. According to the risk level identified, the protection of assets needs to be prioritized in the IPM model. • Humans interacting with Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) are mentioned by researchers as Cyber Phys- ical Human Systems (CPHS). The humans may not be controlling directly CPS. However, they may be associated with the systems as maintenance super- visors, engineers, customers, collaborators etc. The CPS autonomous components in the network perceive about the real world are not always effective at repre- senting uncertainties and interpreting ambiguous or conflicting information. Therefore, applications must rely on effective humanautonomy interaction. This arise the need for coordinated human system interaction on developing principled approaches to leverage comple- mentary strengths of humans and computers. Further, to develop new modes of communication between humans to ensure synergistic plant operations using intelligent predicative maintenance model.
22 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY The above proposed intelligent predictive maintenance framework is not only contributing to theory in the area asset maintenance management, it is also helpful to prac- titioners such as asset maintenance engineers and man- agers in the midstream oil & gas companies in the industry to decide on the development of IPM infrastructure and its implementation in their organizations. Author Dr. Rama Srinivasan Velmurugan GAIL (India) General Manager firstname.lastname@example.org 6.0 CONCLUSION The findings in this paper demonstrated that the relatio- ships among Smart Solutions & Smart Factory concepts of Maintanance 4.0 within the environment of Industry 4.0 and Intelligent Predictive Maintenance. Literature survey and industrial Focus Group Discussions aimed at finding conceptual constructs related predictive maintenance in the context of Maintenance 4.0 and developing the con- ceptual framework for Intelligent Predictive Maintenance. Further, suggesting a working model for implementation of Intelligent Predictive Maintenance in midstream Oil & Gas companies. The prepositions developed in theory are vali- dated through industrial experts and their valued opinions/ experiences are also aggregated in to the theoretical study. Industry experts recommended for support in research on the unique challenges and opportunities in the areas of CPS security & cyber-human systems development. Few sug- gestions are minimal operating systems to create CPS with smaller attack planes, newer ways to detect and prevent strange network traffic, and high-level policy languages for specifying permisible communication patterns. The developed CSSI model along with the IPM framework contributes significantly to the practitioners in midstream Oil & Gas company asset managers. Limitation of this study is the generalization of the results to the indus- try. Further research is therefore required to do large empirical survey involving major Oil & Gas companies worldwide. The research outcomes should be deliberat- ed through an active dialog between key constituents of the community, including government, industry, and academia. This will ensure that the challenges are met in a timely manner and that the Intellgent Predictive Mainte- nance model based on Maintenance 4.0 concepts has the greatest impact possible in the plant operations. References  Bai, H., Ma, Z., & Zhu, Y. (2012). The application of cloud computing in smart grid status monitoring in Internet of Things. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 3, 460-465.  Colombo, A., & Karnouskos, S. (2009). Towards the factory of the future: A service oriented cross layer infrastructure. ICT Shaping the World: A Scientific View, European Telecommunications Standards Institute, 65-81.  Gautreaux, B. (2014, June). Right midstream strategies enable oil and gas producers to maximize profitability. Retrieved from American Oil & Gas Reporter: www.aogr.com/magazine/sneak-peek- preview/right-midstreamstrategies-enable-oil-and-gas-producers-to-maximize  General Electric. (2014, September 9). GE‘s industrial internet will monitor a vast shale gas pipeline network. Retrieved from GE: www. manufacturing.net/news/2014/09/ges-industrial-inter- net-will-monitor-a-vast-shale-gaspipeline-network  Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory:Strategies for Qualitative Rese-    arch. Newyork: Aldine De Gruyter. Indsutrie4.0_Report. (2013). Recommendations for implementing the strategic initiative Industrie 4.0. Industrie 4.0 Working Group. Industrie4.0_Final_Report. (2013). Recommendations for implementing the strategic initiative INDUSTRIE 4.0. Jesse, S. (2014, August 18). Pipeline firms turn to new technolgoies as publicscrutiny intensifies. Retrieved from Alberta Oil: www.albertaoilmagazine.com/2014/08/sensing-failure/  Koch, V., Geissbauer, R., & Schrauf. (2014). Industry 4.0 Opportunities and challenges of the industrial internet report.  Kohlleffel, K. (2015, March). The power of advanced analytics for midstream oil and gas. Retrieved from Hortonworks: http://hortonworks.com/blog/the-power-ofadvanced-analytics-for-midstrea- oil-and-gas/  Kruger, R. (1994). Focus Groups: A practical guide for applied research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.  Lars Larsson. (2014, September 19). Midstream investment in pipeline management solutions. Retrieved from Oil & Gas Monitor: www.oilgasmonitor.com/midstream-investment-pipeline-ma- nagementsolutions/7805/  Lee, J., & Wang, H. (2008). New technologies for maintenance in complex system maintenance handbook. 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Report on Schaeffler Technologies. Germany. Retrieved from www.schaeffler.de/en  schroth, C., & Janner, T. (2007). Web 2.0 and SOA: Converging concepts enabling the internet of services. IT Professional, 3, 36-41.  Souza, M., Sacco, M., & Porto, A. (2015). Virtual manufacturing as a way for the factory of the future. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 17(6), 725-735.  TransCanada. (2014, August). Research and Development (R & D) at TransCanada. Retrieved from www.transcanada.com: www.transcanada.com/docs/About_Us/TransCanada-research-and- de- velopment. pdf  World Economic Forum. (2015). Industrial Internet of Things: Unleashing the potential of connec- ted products and services. World Economic Forum. Retrieved from http://www.weforum.org/docs/ WEFUSA_IndustrialInternet_Report2015.pdf  Yan, L., Zhang, Y., Yang, L., & Ning, H. (2008). The Internet of things: from RFID to the next generati- on pervasive networked systems. CRC Press.  Zorzi, M., Gluhak, A., Lange, S., & Bassi, A. (2010). From Today‘s Intranet of Things to a Future Internet of Things: A wireless and mobility related view. 17, 43-51. 15th Pipeline Technology Conference Europe‘s leading pipeline conference and exhibition Pipeline T Conference 2010 SAVE THE DATE 30 March - 2 April 2020 Berlin, Germany
Digital disruption will occur in Midstream as it is underway in other asset intensive industries Sam Hemeda > Arundo Analytics Abstract The massive growth in Permian production further underscores the role Midstream companies play in the Hydrocarbon value chain. A lack of processing facilities and pipeline capacity adversely impacts the value of E&P onshore pure plays. The access to markets is curtailed for these E&P companies by lack of capacity to process and transport production to refining facilities and/or export markets. Midstream operators must adopt a technology-based approach to guarantee the readiness of aging asset, maximize utilization and guarantee the safety of resources. Additionally, tap into a treasure of operational data for a precise un- derstanding of equipment behavior, deploy “proven value” analytics to optimize operation, maximize the yield without compromising safety or environmental regulation. The article highlights key functions areas within Midstream Value Chain that can benefits from embedding analytics in workflow, additionally a quick recipe for digital transformation and key success factors.
The current business model for companies in the Mid- stream Oil & Gas industry is unsustainable. Additional reg- ulations, aging infrastructure, limited resources and labor shortages are forcing these firms to adapt and change. The massive growth in Permian production further underscores the role Midstream companies play in the Hydrocarbon val- ue chain. A lack of processing facilities and pipeline capac- ity adversely impacts the value of E&P onshore pure plays. The access to markets is curtailed for these E&P companies by lack of capacity to process and transport production to refining facilities and/or export markets. The advent of digital enablement such as cloud storage, open source Artificial Intelligence (AI), Deep Learning applications and low-cost super-computing can be of a great benefit to Midstream operators. Embracing a technolo- gy-oriented mind-set allows operating companies to explore innovation and deploy non-traditional processes to mitigate capacity constraints and key operational challenges. Adopt- ing a digital transformation theme points the way to opera- tional performance gains, minimized downtime, utilize any identified capacity and further enhances shareholder value. While the benefits of digitalization are proven and docu- mented in other Oil & Gas segments, Midstream must avoid a “follow the herd” approach. The adaptability and scaling of technology can only be considered when needed and with precise business goals. Embarking on the digital transfor- mation mission requires that companies perform a thorough assessment of organizational digital readiness and available technologies to attain business value. Many existing applica- tions such as ERP, Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS) , Historian (OSI PI) and others offer a head- start, and only then if operational data are accessible with an acceptable level of veracity. WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS? The digital path may be structured for each business func- tion, where each has its own set of significant value build- ing blocks. The table below illustrates potential areas of gain per activity or function and many of these functions are in practice. Midstream companies can explore areas to extract more value, such as asset condition monitoring to increase uptime and prediction of failures, spills and emissions to avoid hefty penalties. Midstream facilities operate varieties of industrial control systems and digital sensors. Secure and reliable streaming of sensor data is a key step in implementing a holistic digital vision that yields considerable gains. After connectivity and visibility are addressed, virtual sensors, combined with physical sensor data, provide real-time monitoring of critical equipment such as compressors and pumps. Selection of specific analytic tools depends on specific use cases. Critical RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 25 operational decisions are based on intelligent data and less reliant on management intuition or “gut feel”. Once data is available and labeled, machine learning models are then deployed to improve critical asset uptime, anticipa- tion of unplanned shutdowns, alerts of potential bottlenecks, predicting failures that would otherwise have triggered major stoppages, incidents and in some cases fatalities. The procurement team will be equipped with intelligent supply chain tools with the capability to explore potential risk scenarios based on analytics. Procurement will also be alerted to supplier issues in order to take proactive action to minimize supply route disruptions. As data quality improves, equipment performance is optimized. Utility expenditure can be reduced by using alternative pipeline networks with lower tariffs. Assessing the condition and availability of operating assets can also identify potential capacity in the pipeline and enables the operator to respond to spot orders, thereby increasing operating margins. Figure 1: Deployment of Artificial Intelligence in Midstream operation is limitless A typical midstream asset encompasses multiple facili- ties, each with critical equipment and devices. However, for the purpose of this article, we will only explore Pipeline and Terminals as they play significant roles in Midstream value chain.
26 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINES The installation of sensors and use of SCADA is widespread among many Midstream operators. However, aging assets with obsolete SCADA and legacy technology can stifle digital transformations. Aging infrastructure is a prime candidate for a technology upgrade, installing Edge Devices, replacing an- alog sensors with digital, mounting strain sensors, vibration monitoring coupled with terrain and topography information enables Midstream operators to visualize and pinpoint weak spots in the pipeline. Commercial drones are being deployed to canvas pipelines network using thermal, infrared sensors to identify weak points within the network and stream data to operation team for critical operational decision. Many Midstream operators have adopted a 1st principal equations for computational monitoring such as leak detection, spills and theft. Running smart PIGS for In Line inspection (ILI) data is a key input in Integrity management programs and a leading indicator of internal corrosion. Using advanced analytics and incorporating data from ILI and, metallurgy and previous historical data provide a self-learn- ing models for the optimum corrosion prediction. Advanced analytics tools offer engineers acceptable means to predict the outcomes of future operational decisions and monitoring the integrity of the pipelines with/out the absence of PVT simulation models. Virtualizing the pipeline and boosting stations by creating a digital-twin that mimics the behavior of the assets will prove valuable in exploring optimal operational scenarios and determining remedies for bottleneck and unplanned events. Compressor and pump performance is monitored and machine learning tools offer a “look-ahead” early warning of failures. TERMINALS Terminals operation is a complex system of processes, exe- cuting a significant number of orders, as well as delivery and storage of various products. The focus on quality, safety and efficiency is paramount. Terminal operation has benefited from installing ERP systems for handling massive amounts of data with remarkable success in streamlining opera- tions. The U.S. onshore production and demand fluctuation, increased U.S. export and LNG spot buying adds another level of complexity to terminal operations. Running Terminals analytics can trim few percentages in operation expenditure while increasing capacity. THE RECIPE Data quality, availability and veracity is essential, digital read- iness, vision and business value among other should be ascertain before rushing into “low hanging fruit” initiative. The following Spider Web diagram touches upon some of the key variables. Midstream companies can adjust the diagram appropriate to their operations and objectives. Additionally, determining “Business Value” has always been the subject of many budget discussions and Go/No Go decisions. Companies can tap into the possibilities of creating a mock-up or a proof of concept (PoC) use cases to explore the value and feasibility of scaling. However, once deployed on larger scale, the expected value might be diminished due to other variable such as Change Manage- ment, implementation risk and management appetite to re-create the business model. Therefore, while the PoC results might be very attractive, what are the expected benefits of ramping up. Figure 2: Key factors to consider in drafting a Digital Transformation Initiative MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT There is often too much hype around new technologies for the C-suite to ascertain what will work and what won’t. A large set of the C-suite find challenges in making the digital opportunity real. They hesitate because it is complex and outside the realm of other tech/management initiatives of the past like ERP, or quality practice like Lean Six Sigma. There are many different components, many moving parts and many are unproven technologies. Creating mock-ups and PoC’s , getting the C-suite to experience first-hand new technologies proved beneficial in generating a deeper un- derstanding of digital transformation and its contribution to business value. DIGITAL STRATEGY As we indicated earlier, many Midstream applications -currently in use- offer a digital transformation head-start. However, that fact does not guarantee successful outcomes. The objective of Digital strategy is business performance improvement, exploring new products, re-inventing current
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 27 methodology and restructure business models. New technology makes it possible for innovative companies to provide new and add-on services. Digital Strategy propos- es how technology enables organizations to create new competitive advantages, as well as the tactics to achieve realize gains. However, organizations should not be lured into the “low hanging fruit” and “quick gains” if it ham- pers the pursuit of holistic digital vision with less desired impact on competitiveness or performance. TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION Digital transformation requires more than just the IT and business sides working together. Human resources and development teams have a big role to play in accomplishing a true enterprise-wide results from digital transformation. Alignment between different business functions is a none trivial undertaking, yet essential. HR & IT teams need to part- ner together more closely to synchronize their goals and get the most out the employees as jobs and functions evolve. IMPLEMENTATION RISK IT Project Management and execution developed a reputa- tion of cost overruns, missed deadlines, scope creep, and failure to meet business requirements. Companies must adopt agile methods and a transformative approach to keep pace with constantly evolving technologies. Use of analytics to predict and manage risks and steering a course correction becomes inevitable. CHANGE MANAGEMENT Change management is a catalyst for digital transformation success. Yet, it is often undervalued by organizations when embarking on major IT initiatives which is a key contribution to project success. Organizations must cultivate a philoso- phy of supporting workers to adopt to the changes that drive project success. TECHNOLOGY MATURITY Digital Maturity is an evolving process and is achieved thru different development phases. Technology matured organizations easily deploy innovations and conduct busi- ness in a new and different ways. Additionally, monitoring and adopting to how your partners, clients and compet- itors use such technology is a sign of a technologically mature organization. BUSINESS VALUE When mapping your path of digital transformation, it is essential to know what market segment you will be in and what your customers objectives will be in 3-5 years, not just meeting their current expectations. Mirroring their vision will help in laying foundations of a transformation, delivery of a milestones with defined and measured KPI’s that will address near and long term business objective of your customer. OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGY One of the key benefits of open source technology is its minimalist cost. While IT cost is a factor, true value of open source applications arrives by aligning the operation and developer teams and accelerating the collaboration towards business objectives. Participating in technology focused industry forums, data sharing and pursuing open source cog- nitive analytics is a desirable approach. Containerization has been gaining momentum, it enables developers to interact with business operation and create predictable outcomes from their newly developed applications.. CONCLUSION Current Midstream business models and practices are be- ing challenged by endless changes in Oil & Gas exploration and production landscape. Embracing digital transforma- tion can equip Midstream operators with tools to cope with ebbs and flows in both upstream & downstream. Addition- ally, Midstream companies can tap into a treasure trove of operational data to evaluate the integrity of their assets, understand equipment behavior and abandon “run to fail- ure” operating philosophy. Deploying advanced analytics to explore optimum operational scenarios for yield in- crease without compromising quality or safety. Start small and evaluate the result of specific use cases. Finally, Digital Transformation requires bold actions, develop serious ini- tiatives in pioneering new Midstream business models. Author Sam Hemeda Arundo Analytics Senior Executive Sam.hemeda@ capstoneenergyconsulting.com
The Big Data Revolution: Detecting Pipeline Leaks, Encroachments, and more Using Satellites John Zhou & Caroline Beck > Satelytics Abstract Benefiting from the vast capacity and speed provided by cloud computing, remote sensing technology is quickly expanding from infrequent projects to becoming an integral part of on-going operations. We have seen many innovative applications in this arena, particularly at oil & gas, pipeline, and power companies, where their large spatial footprint is challenging for conventional approaches. In this article, we make the case for applying Remote Sensing Technology (RST) and Geospatial Analytics (GA) for on-going operations and give two examples to demonstrate RST in operation could significantly reduce risks and liabilities for pipeline operators. This technology can also be used to monitor pipelines and the rights-of-way for hydrocarbon leaks, change detec- tion, land slips and slides, vegetation growth, water temperature, illegal (hot) tapping, and many more biological and chemical constituents of both land and water. We are confident that with the rapid commoditization of remote sensing data collection, RST/GA will be widely adopted in pipeline, oil & gas, and power companies.
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 29 INTRODUCTION “Satellite remote sensing and big data derived from spectral imagery are transforming the way pipeline companies do business.” John Zhou, Chief Technology Officer, Satelytics to extensive government agency regulations and have similar issues to pipeline operators as it relates to securing the social license to operate in the court of public opinion. The pipeline industry has witnessed massive accelera- tion in the acquisition of big data. A technological race is underway to create opportunities out of the digital disrup- tion that are changing the status quo. Many in the industry acknowledge technology improvements directly enhance safety and increase profitability. Assets in high risk areas require careful observation to cope with the effects of time, man-made threats and severe weather. Analyzing infrastructure in remote and difficult-to-access areas is very challenging with traditional monitoring techniques, but much easier and safer with remote sensing technol- ogies. The ability to solve critical business problems by utilizing spectral data processed through satelytics.io can be accomplished within hours of capturing data. REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGIES AND GEOSPATIAL ANALYTICS Big-data-based digitalization like Remote Sensing Technol- ogies (RST) and Geospatial Analytics (GA) apply algorithmic analysis to data obtained from electromagnetic energy. This is energy reflected off the earth’s surface or atmosphere which is then collected by remote sensors. Data collection occurs passively (using an external energy source, such as radiation from sunlight) or actively (by generating the energy source internally, e.g., a laser beam). Sensors may be mounted on satellites, nano-satellites, fixed wing aircrafts, drones or UAVs, stratospheric balloons, fixed stations or a combination of platforms. Each sensor platform has its own advantages and disadvantages in terms of cost, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and geographical coverage. Raw data are collected and transferred from spec- tral sensors to computing assemblies where analytical and algorithmic applications convert that raw data into actionable information. The series of steps involved in RST-GA are illustrated in Figure 1. RST-GAs are widely available commercial technologies that identify, alert, and quantify specific measurements. These technologies address key challenges facing the oil and gas pipeline industry. Satelytics’ RST-GA technologies are not limited to the oil and gas sector; other industries that share similar operating conditions and challenges can benefit as well. For example, rail and pipeline markets both share a common set of operating environments, predicated on large and often inaccessible infrastructure. They are also subject Figure 1: Remote Sensing Technologies and Geospatial Analytics A. B. C. D. E. F. Energy Source (Active/Passive) Radiation and the Atmosphere Interaction with the Target Sensor Platforms to Record Energy Transmission, Reception and Processing Automated Processes: Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence Presentation of Analytics G. H. Display Platforms RST-GAS MAKE IT EASIER TO DETECT THREATS “The big leaks anyone can spot. SCADA alarms indicate pressure drops with a high degree of efficiency and immediacy. No, it’s the small leaks that go undetect- ed for months that are of concern to our customers Sean Donegan There are many targets of interest including hydrocarbon leak detection, land movement and other geohazard iden- tification, right-of-way change detection and encroach- ment monitoring, vegetation management and general maintenance, as well as a new, high-profile use to identify fugitive methane emissions. The science behind RST-GA is well developed and understood and has broad applica- tions that align with or support other pipeline infrastruc-
30 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY ture tasks, such as the following: • Mapping and analysis of right-of-way conditions, encroachments, and third-party interference; Liquid leak detection; Gas/methane leak and emissions detection; Asset integrity; Permitting and siting; and Triggering emergency response. • • • • • Early detection of oil spills and leaks can improve protection of critical habitats and identify sources of pollution. Detect- ing threats to pipeline infrastructure using a spectroscopic approach with digital analytics enables pipeline operators to quickly react to a multitude of conditions. Changes in the vicinity of pipeline infrastructure can arise from many sources. Third-party interference and liquid hy- drocarbon leaks are the major cause of pipeline failure and cause a significant risk for health, safety and the environ- ment. Geohazards and land movements can be precursors to events that lead to unwelcome operational disruptions and regulatory consequences. Easily preventable, but unmitigat- ed natural changes like landslides or riverbank erosion can lead to damaged infrastructure that interrupt operations, contaminate local ecologies, and pose health and safety risks to workers, residents and the environment. To detect hydrocarbon presence, certain bands of spectral data are analyzed to detect subtle changes in reflectance of the target. These changes, when present, illustrate the hydro- carbon chemical effect in surface materials. Affected areas shown by increased or decreased energy absorption are interpreted by Satelytics’ analytical software and the spectral data showing evidence of leakage is displayed visually. The spectral indices of vegetation growing near oil and gas pipelines are other excellent indicators of hydrocarbon leakage. Remotely sensed hyperspectral data has long been used to monitor phenology and to measure the rela- tive density and health of vegetation. Established indices, in particular the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), allow scientists to classify typical growing condi- tions. Once those normal growth parameters are estab- lished, any changes due to hydrocarbon pollution (leaks, spills) can be identified. Oil spills directly cause biophysical and biochemical alteration of vegetation and surface soil which is detected in the spectral signature. Hydrocarbon leaks alter the soil and interfere with nutrient and oxygen uptake, thus weakening the photosynthetic cycle. Chlo- rophyll concentration and water absorption are affected, and in turn the plant foliage characteristics change. Since vegetation health indices register the norm, even minute changes can be detected by Satelytics software. In short, the concept is similar to early mining days where a canary was the most important companion for the miners, e.g. using a sensitive surrogate (vegetation) to indicate existence of dangerous material (oil/gas leak). EXAMPLES ANALYTICS IN ACTION: EAGLE FORD The Eagle Ford Shale Play in Texas, the most capital intense oil and gas development in the world, has had a huge impact on the oil and gas industry. Nearly $30 billion (USD) went into the development of the Eagle Ford Play since it began in 2013. The Eagle Ford, Texas area is potentially expected to recover 10 billion barrels of oil. This hydrocarbon-rich area lies directly beneath the Austin Chalk, an historically well-known onshore oil and gas play that extends across south-central Texas into southern Louisiana. This huge oil producing region relies heavily on pipelines to transport the shale oil to refineries. The area has shallow soil with concentrated sodium and chloride ions (salts), and the shale oils themselves contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S), all of which set the stage for aggressive corrosion. The operator in our case study discovered the original four Figure 2: February 9, 2015 (left) and August 10, 2015 (right). The yellow ovals indicate areas of leakage confirmed by the operator
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 31 focused on advancing new technologies to prevent and detect pipeline leaks. Funding was provided by the North Dakota Industrial Commission and companies within the oil and gas industry. The program is an industry-led consortium whose mission is to accelerate the application of emerging technologies to prevent and detect pipeline leaks. Current iP- IPE partners include: Andeavor, ONEOK, Equinor, Hess, DCP Midstream, Goodnight Midstream, Whiting and Oasis. This comprehensive project utilized weekly collection of several different types of spectral data. This project illustrates the effectiveness of RST-GAs to aid pipeline companies in preventing problems and to deliver a safe, consistent, and unfaltering product while realizing operational efficiencies. areas of leaks while surveying the line (on another issue) in late 2015 where visible hydrocarbons were bubbling on the surface. We were asked to look back in time to establish (if possible) when this leak started and when Satelytics would have raised the alert. In the example illustrated, there were two sets of available data: February and August 2015 (see Figure 2). We applied RST-GA techniques to both sets of data and established that there were no leaks in February. Six leaks were detected by Satelytics in August of the same year. In October 2015, the operator was aware of only four leaks. This area represented in Figure 3 shows the eight-inch buried transmission line, with leaks identified in yellow. The blue rectangle represents the multi-million-dollar clean up and remediation. It would have been possible to assess, identify and alert the operator shortly after the image capture in February as the next series of image captures would have shown the infrared signature of vegetation health to have altered. This would NOT have been visible to the naked eye. The financial impact from remediation could have been reduced by over 93%. Figure 3: Satelytics processed imagery illustrating the original four leaks, as well as two additional areas of leaks (circled in yellow) originally undiscovered by the operator Figure 4: Significant increase in water level detected on a participating com- pany’s line ANALYTICS IN ACTION: NORTH DAKOTA “iPIPE is seeking emerging technologies that can assist pipeline operators in preventing and detecting pipeline leaks. No one wishes for zero leaks more than the pipeline operators themselves. These leaks, when they occur, often take months to clean up and sometimes cost the compa- nies millions of dollars, or even tens of millions of dollars, in restoring the surrounding soils to original condition. This is precisely why industry is willing to invest in the development of new tools to prevent these events.” – Jay Almlie, Principal Engineer and Mid/Downstream Oil & Gas Group Lead at the EERC Satelytics was invited to participate in the Intelligent Pipeline Integrity Program (iPIPE) in the Summer of 2018 to provide RST-GA analysis of gathering pipelines in North Dakota. IPIPE (The Intelligent Pipeline Integrity Program - www. ipipepartnership.com) is a research and development project Figure 5: New structure or object detected within the right of way
32 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY Figure 6: New structure detected within the right of way Figure 7: New vehicle detected within the right of way
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 33 While linear regression is simple, it is not adequate and robust and requires frequent calibrations. This inhib- its the automation of the process. Models based on Artificial Intelligence algorithms such as Artificial Neural Network require a lot of data to train, but they are more robust and adapt very well with changes. This makes it is possible to automate the entire production chain from data collection to results delivery. Satelytics is chosen by our customers as a partner on their journey to utilize big data in supporting their operations because they consider us the expert in the “Four A’s” and we treat their goal –to minimize problems and maximize sustainability – as ours. Will we be fortunate enough to team up with you? Authors John Zhou Satelytics Chief Technology Officer email@example.com CONCLUSION We are at an age where two major technologies (Internet of Things and Cloud Computing) are quickly converging. The Internet of Things connects all types of sensors and collects a huge amount of data at break-neck speed. For remote sensing technology, we have various spectral data sources from diverse platforms: satellites, nano-sat- ellites, drones/UAV, fixed platforms and airplane. Besides those, there are also consistent data streams from weather data and operational telemetric systems. Cloud computing provides on-demand vast computation power which makes it possible to process large volumes of geospatial data through complex models (such as Artificial Intelligence) at a very fast speed. Advancement in those two technolo- gies drive data collection and computation cost down and enable pipeline operators to make data-driven decisions. Data-driven decisions help pipeline operators increase system reliability while reducing liability by discovering and mitigating potential issues at a very early stage. On the flip side of the coin, opportunities also bring chal- lenges. The volume, velocity and variation of big data is overwhelming. Armed with proper analytical tools to distill data and visualize insights, one can harvest tremendous value offered in the gold mine of big data. Powerful digital technology involves leveraging the appropriate combination of spectral and other contextual data and analytical systems to produce actionable insight which is critical to keeping cost, time, and operational disruption to a minimum. We have identified four A’s that will help your team win with big data: • Aspiration: an organization needs to have the desire to harness the power of big data to develop a clear roadmap and promote a champion to lead the course. Caroline Beck Satelytics Project Scientist firstname.lastname@example.org • Affordability: while data cost is progressively reduced over time, it is still the biggest expenditure in the entire ecosystem. Choosing the right spectral data platform is crucial for success. • Availability: analytic results should be available in different hardware platforms (the smartphone, a tablet and or in browsers) and software forms. The system should be designed in a way that proper assumptions are made so that majority use cases are met with simple and uncluttered interfaces while it is flexible enough for the user to easily make customizations. It should also allow machine-to-machine communica- tions via API so that analytic results can be consumed by other enterprise systems. • Automation: traditional remote sensing is based on lin- ear regressions due to many constraints we had before. Haven’t seen your company in here? There is space for advertising! Contact us: email@example.com
Best Practices for Cybersecurity Diagnosis in Industrial Environments Ernesto Landa > Compania Operadora de Gas del Amazonas Abstract In recent years attacks against information infrastructures have become ever more frequent and complex, while at the same time perpetrators have become more professional. Every day the mass media around the world releases news related to cyber activities, which report the attempts of one country trying to get advantage over another country using cyber tools. Stuxnet is an example of this type of activities. This is a cyber weapon designed for a very particular objective. It can alter physical processes by taking advantage of the logical vulnerabilities information systems have. The Stuxnet attack was a turning point for Governments who witnessed for the first time how physical infrastructures can be altered from the cyber space. This fact forced them to take measures to improve the resilience of their infrastructures. Most Governments have decided to protect their Critical Infrastructures since they are an essential element of their National Security Strategies. Even industries that for many years had not paid any attention to the cyber security prin- ciples, have been forced to consider them in their operations security strategies. In fact, it is increasingly common to find cybersecurity requirements as part of customer demands or in national laws. Before designing an effective cybersecurity strategy, we have to fully understand the entire technological industrial architecture of our company. We cannot protect what we cannot see o what we do not know. It is useless to imple- ment cybersecurity controls in one part of the infrastructure if we do not protect the other part due to ignorance or negligence. Sooner or later the attackers will discover the unprotected part and at that moment all the efforts invested in the protection of the other part will be in vain. The main objectives of the industrial cybersecurity diagnosis are to assess the cybersecurity of industrial plants identifying the vulnerabilities and risks they are facing. It proposes as well actions to overcome such risks. To achieve such objective, it must be taken into consideration the specific requirements for this type of environments assuring the operation of the productive process.
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 35 1. INTRODUCTION Cybersecurity is a set of processes that aim to protect the technological infrastructure of an organization. Cyber secu- rity is a well-known field in the corporate world but is new to traditional industrial environments. There It faces new problems because the cyber security techniques and tools commonly used in corporate environments could cause several damages to the industrial infrastructure. Industrial Cybersecurity covers many of the critical infrastructures organizations, but there are also other el- ements that must be included even if they do not belong to critical sectors. Cybersecurity diagnosis for industrial environments is a very specialized service highly valued by the customers and with a short market offering. This is a complex, special- ized process including several disciplines covering areas such as technical considerations, administrative, organiza- tional and compliance process as well as a physical access to the industrial plant. systems. Even it may be possible that a customer demands cybersecurity components or that these components must be present to face a compliance issue. Knowledge related to cybersecurity is usually disseminat- ed inside the organization which makes cyber security di- agnosis a difficult task. To achieve such objective, different profiles must be contacted that will not always cooperate since they may feel their jobs at risk. However, and above everything that has been said so far, there is an essential element in this type of activities: to assure the production of the industrial plant. This means that usual operations for IT environment such as a network scan, cannot be used at all in an industrial environment, for the undesired results that such action may generate. 2. MANDATORY DOCUMENTS Before starting a cyber security diagnosis for industrial environments, the following documents must be signed: Taking into account that the final purpose of the service is assuring the industrial process security, this may be re- quested from many areas inside the organization, such as plant and operations responsible, security or IT managers, as well as from the top management. • Rules of Engagement: The supplier and the customer agree on how the jobs are going to be executed, the scope, timing, contact persons on both sides, methods for information ex- change and how the results will be presented. A cybersecurity diagnosis may be requested for several reasons. One of the most common situations for request- ing a cybersecurity diagnosis is an incident, or the aware- ness raised by a responsible about obsolete cybersecurity principles and measures. In this case, the company does not have a true view of what is happening in its industrial • Non-Disclosure Agreement: Its objective is protecting both sides for disclosing sensible or classified information. During the time the work is executed, both sides must share technical de- tails such as configurations, customer equipment and supplier methodologies. Figure 1: Industrial Cybersecurity and Critical Infrastructures
36 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY • Non-responsibility clauses: The supplier agrees before starting the activities, to identify the tasks and the impact that those may have in industrial processes. From this point on, it must be agreed contingency actions between the customer and the supplier. The customer must understand that this type of activities have an inherent risks and agree on the actions and limits in the case that this happens. 3. METHODOLOGY Cybersecurity diagnosis in industrial environments has four parts: 3.1 PREPARATION The preparation phase must offer detailed information on the environment, the production process and the physical locations where these processes take place. This is very important information to optimize the time for the visits. If the installations are in remote places, there are usually restrictions for visits and access. During this phase, it is requested the following information: System inventories Policies and procedures • Network maps • • Addressing plans • • Organization charts • • • • Antecedentes de Incidentes de Ciberseguridad. General information on the installation Third party agreements Cybersecurity reported incidents. 3.2 FIELD WORK The field work means to physically visit the installations on which the diagnosis will be performed. Information must be compiled that will be presented during the report phase. Information is compiled during this phase through person- al one-to-one meetings. These meetings take place with key installation staff such as the plant responsible, the pro- cess owner, the security responsible, the Chief Engineer, the maintenance responsible, and plant operation person- nel in general. One of the main problems in this phase is that of staff availability, since they usually work in shifts with busy working scheduled and they are not available for the meetings when they are requested. For this reason, it is very important to assign a Point of Contact (PoC) during this phase; this is someone belong- ing to the Company and that helps in identifying the ap- propriate persons to interview. Many of these installations have complex work safety processes and procedures that may interfere in third party visits. Very often the people interviewed will not cooperate, in particular if they perceive the diagnosis job as a threat. A way to face with this situation and get a closer involve- ment is explaining why the information is needed and the objectives of the job assigned. This phase is very import- ant because the diagnosis will depend on the information gathered during this phase. The role of the PoC at this point is very important; this person will be in charge of assuring that the person to be interviewed schedules the meeting, prepare in advance the questions and how long the meeting will be. The interviewer will have an outline to be adapted to the specific situation and to be modified in the circumstances request to do so. There is valuable information inferred between lines during the conversation. Some specific aspects will be covered and the interviewed person may not want to answer to some of the questions that could enclose any type of damage. Once the interviews finish there will be may information available from reliable sources. However, this information does not offer either an integral or accurate view. There- fore, the information collected should be reviewed access- ing the installation systems. At this point, there are two main problems: the large amount of industrial systems and the risks for accessing to them while on production. Discovering and inventorying the industrial network sys- tems must be done using passive techniques. These tech- niques are process and procedures that cannot potentially influence the appropriate operation of the inspected sys- tems. The baseline principle for this type of environments is to never interfere with the industrial process. 3.3 REPORTING Once the verification phase is completed, the collected information must be organized. The organization that acquires this type of services will get accurate and updated information on their systems. Reporting the results is, as a consequence, an essential task. The reports must con- tain organized information, research of events discovered during the field work, review of configuration files, data correlation and consolidation from different sources, and updating the network configurations. When doubts emerge during the report, the Point of Con- tact may arrange some type of communication with the appropriate person and even, given the case to visit again the installation.
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 37 The report must contain three parts: 3.3.1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The executive summary must present the most important discoveries related to the installation’s cybersecurity. It must contain as well a valuation of the risk and effort need- ed for implementing the measures that may prevent such risks. The target audience for this part of the document is the management; therefore, the language used must not contain technical terms and specifications. 3.3.2 CURRENT SITUATION This item is a summary of the current situation of the networks, systems and installations under study. It de- scribes accurately the installation and it may be used as the starting point for the gap analysis. This Chapter will be used as well as the starting point for the recommendations proposed. It usually exists enough documentation on the physical architecture, wiring and connection maps between differ- ent devices and places. However, the documentation re- lated to logical architecture (security zones, local network addressing, routing, etc.) is usually very limited or it does not exist at all. When the network architecture is reviewed, one of the main objectives will be to identify the potential communi- cation lines, from the corporate network to the lower levels belonging to control and process networks. It is important as well to identify the services available through the net- work and the used protocols. These discovery activities, usual in corporate networks, can be difficult to execute in industrial environments be- cause the use of automation tools may affect the opera- tion of the network systems. 4.2 COMMON ERRORS 3.3.3 RECOMMENDATIONS • Dual-homed Servers The Chapter for Recommendations will propose modifica- tions to the current systems or implementing countermea- sures that may improve the installation’s cyber security. Special attention must be for the quick wins, that is low effort and budget actions but with a substantial improve- ment in the plant’s cybersecurity. These quick wins can be quickly identified given the immaturity related to cyber- security in this type of organizations. The Recommenda- tions Chapter must include budge estimates, material and human resources requirements as well as how long will take implementing the proposed measures. Many of these measures will generate new projects. 3.4 PRESENTATION OF RESULTS. Presenting the results is the final step of the service de- livered. It will show the most meaningful results avoiding using technical or negative terms since very likely part of the staff will not agree on the information presented. The presenter must be ready to show evidences and proofs on the results presented and to exchange information and points of view with the customer to get a full understand- ing about the cybersecurity situation of the installation. 4. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE Network architecture is a key element of the diagnosis service. Their configuration conditions the cybersecurity of the installation’s system. Special attention must be paid to identify the existing security areas and if those are enough to assure the security level demanded by the installation. It is very common to find in industrial environments dual-homed servers, these are servers with two interfaces connected to networks. These servers, are placed usually at the third network level, corre- sponding to the centralized control and supervision functions. These servers have been usually imple- mented by integrators and vendors to offer specific functionalities and at the same time being secure. The main objective of these servers is offering access to the lower system levels of the industrial process from the upper levels, avoiding a direct connection. A typical situation is that of the opera- tor with its working station attached to the corpo- rate network but that needs to access the process networks. When dualhomed servers are installed, the operator may access from its working station to one of the servers through the network interface. Once connected to the server, the operator may use it as a proxy to access through another interface, the systems at lower levels. This configuration that may be found often in industrial organizations must be avoided; the reason is that the malware may scan the systems compromised and discover other networks inside the organization through which they may propagate. In addition, it is very simple to configure the oper- ating sytems of devices to be used as routers; then, the security incidents of the corporate network may disseminate with no resistance inside the process networks.
38 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY • Limited Segmentation and Filtering In general, industrial networks are not highly segmented and there are very few filtering devices installed in them. Very often, this filtering device is a router or general purpose firewall that isolates the corporate network from the rest of the networks related to the industrial process. • Non-controlled Direct Accesses One of the main cybersecurity risks at industrial networks are devices that can be accessed directly from Internet. Bob Radvanovsky has used the Shodan Internet searching engine to develop the SHINE project (Shodan Intelligence Extraction) (3). This project has identified more than a million of in- dustrial control directly connected to Internet. As a consequence, a main task will be to identify if there are control network devices directly connected to Internet, for eventually analyze them and define the access and security measures to be implemented. The final objective of these measures is assuring the security of the devices themselves as well as of the installation. • Non-controlled Devices External non-controlled storage units or units be- longing to third parties are one of the main vectors for entering malware to the industrial installations. These no controlled devices are usually USB units and suppliers’ personal computers or working sta- tions, connected directly to the industrial network with non-security measures. Actually, industrial networks must exchange infor- mation with other networks inside the organization, and in many cases this task must be done through mobile USBs, because both environments are iso- lated for security reasons. While developing the diagnosis service, it must be identified if the industrial network is applying this type of practices, the real need for them, and if there are other alternatives to develop such tasks in a secure way. It must be defined as well if there is a common practice inside the organization, connecting devices belonging to third parties, the real need for this and the inherent risks. 5. VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT Once the network systems are identified, it is very import- ant to identify vulnerabilities that may affect the instal- lation security. When dealing with a corporate network, the tool used is a vulnerability scanner that identifies the existing weak points in the different systems; it generates reports on results and recommendations as well. However, in industrial environments again, this type of automated tools is not recommended for the potentially damaging traffic they may generate. Again, passive techniques must be used. These techniques will have the following phases: To select a representative system sample 1. 2. To store the software and firmware versions existing in the simple. 3. To search manually vulnerabilities in public reposito- ries such as: - National Vulnerability Database - Open Source Vulnerability Database http://www.osvdb.org/ http://nvd.nist.gov/ This is a tedious task that takes time; it may cause as well false positives. However, it will not damage the operation of any system. The false positives must also be taken into account since it is better to solve them beforehand that once they have happened. When found a false positive this must be report- ed and discarded at a later phase if appropriate. Authors Ernesto Landa COGA Information Security Officer firstname.lastname@example.org STAY UP TO DATE WITH THE PTJ-NEWSLETTER https://newsletter.eitep.de https://newsletter.eitep.de
15TH PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE 30 MARCH - 2 APRIL 2020, BERLIN, GERMANY Europe’s Leading pipeline conference & exhibition 900+ DELEGATES 90+ EXHIBITORS 50+ DIFFERENT NATIONS DELEGATIONS FROM 80+ DIFFERENT PIPELINE OPERATORS SUPPORTERS origin of pipeline operators attending ptc eG Die Leitungsauskunft www.pipeline-conference.com
40 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL CONFERENCES / SEMINARS / EXHIBITIONS 750 PARTICIPANTS 78 EXHIBITORS 54 DIFFERENT NATIONS 80 Pipeline System Operators from Europe, Asia, MENA and South America Ensure Success for Exhibitors during 14th ptc in Berlin Europe’s leading pipeline conference and exhibition, the Pipeline Technology Conference (ptc), has been held successfully from 18 to 21 March 2019 in Berlin, Germany. The outgoing Conference Chairman Dr. Klaus Ritter emphasized at the handover of this function to Dennis Fandrich the following: 750 participants from 54 differ- ent nations, and delegations from almost 80 different pipeline system operators as well as 78 exhibitors have joined and contributed to the event. This makes ptc 2019 the biggest and most successful event so far. It enables technology and service providers from all over the world to get in direct contact with many potential clients and to show them new products and solutions. Exhibiting compa- nies went home with folders full of notes and orders. ptc’s attractiveness results especially from the insightful plenary sessions and panel discussions. The event tackled some of the most important challenges for pipeline system operators, providing them with important impulses and sug- gestions for the fulfilment of their tasks - and making ptc to an attractive address for pipeline system operators. The topics were: • • Digital Transformation & Cyber Security in the Eurasian Pipeline Forum: Linking East and West Pipeline Industry Pipelines 2050: From Fossil Fuels to Renewable Fuels • Illegal Tapping • • Public Perception of Pipelines and Pipeline Projects • Qualification and Recruitment of Pipeline Personnel The core of the ptc have again been 25 Technical Sessions with more than 80 lectures reviewed by the members of the Dr. Klaus Ritter President EITEP Institute Outgoing ptc Chairman Dennis Fandrich Director Conferences New ptc Chairman
CONFERENCES / SEMINARS / EXHIBITIONS PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 41 Three seminars on “Inline Inspection”, “Life Cycle Extension Strategies” and “Geohazards in Pipeline Engineering” have supplemented the program with experienced lecturers and interesting topics. Additionally, the ptc Round Table “Illegal Tapping” took pace, an informal exchange of experiences between pipeline operators only. The winner photo of the ptc-photo contest under the motto “What is it like to work in the pipeline industry?” has been awarded on Thursday. Winners of the competition were the pipeline system operators TANAP and TurkStream. ptc Advisory Committee. All abstracts and papers are acces- sible through the Pipeline Open Knowledge Base for future reference and research purposes. ptc has targeted key areas of all developments in the on- shore and offshore pipeline industry – covering planning & design, construction, operation and maintenance. Also, the industrywide challenge regarding “Qualification and Recruit- ment” has been addressed in the conference. For the first time, the ptc Side Conference “Public Perception” has been conducted. This ptc Side Conference addressed relevant questions about the perception of pipelines in the population and the problems resulting from a negative view of future pipeline projects. In addition to all these program items, the 14th Pipeline Technology Conferences offered several social events which provided plenty of networking opportunities. The Get-To- gether-Party on Thursday evening and the Dinner Invitation within the Classic Remise, a center for vintage cars, on Wednesday evening provided memorable experiences for the participants. 80 Pipeline Operators
42 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL COMPANY DIRECTORY . Association IAOT - International Association of Oil Transporters Czech Republic www.iaot.eu/ DVGW - German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water Germany www.dvgw.de Automation Siemens Germany www.siemens.com Yokogawa Japan www.yokogawa.com Certification Bureau Veritas Germany www.bureauveritas.de DNV GL Norway www.dnvgl.com TÜV SÜD Indutrie Service Germany www.tuev-sued.de/is Cleaning Reinhart Hydrocleaning Switzerland www.rhc-sa.ch/rhc/ Coating 1/2 Denso Germany www.denso.de Kebulin-gesellschaft Kettler Germany www.kebu.de POLINOM Russia www.rikol.ru Coating 2/2 Polyguard Products United States www.polyguard.com Premier Coatings United Kingdom www.premiercoatings.com/ RPR Technologies Norway www.rprtech.com/ Shawcor United States www.shawcor.com Sulzer Mixpac Switzerland www.sulzer.com TDC International Switzerland www.tdc-int.com TIAL Russia www.tial.ru TIB Chemicals Germany www.tib-chemicals.com Construction 1/2 BIL - Federal German Construction Enquiry Portal Germany www.bil-leitungsauskunft.de Herrenknecht Germany www.herrenknecht.com IPLOCA - International Pipe Line & Offshore Contractors Association Switzerland www.iploca.com Liderroll Brasil www.liderroll.com.br LogIC France www.logic-sas.com
PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 43 COMPANY DIRECTORY Construction 2/2 Inline Inspection 2/2 MAX STREICHER Germany www.streicher.de/en Petro IT Ireland www.petroit.com VACUWORX Netherlands www.vacuworx.com Vintri Technologies Canada www.vintritech.com Vlentec Netherlands www.vlentec.com Construction Machinery Maats Netherlands www.maats.com Worldwide Group Germany www.worldwidemachinery.com VIETZ Germany www.vietz.de Engineering ILF Consulting Engineers Germany www.ilf.com KÖTTER Consulting Engineers Germany www.koetter-consulting.com Inline Inspection 1/2 3P Services Germany www.3p-services.com A.Hak Industrial Services Netherlands www.a-hak-is.com Baker Hughes, a GE company United States www.bakerhughes.com Intero Integrity Services Netherlands www.intero-integrity.com/ Kontrolltechnik Germany www.kontrolltechnik.com KTN AS Norway www.ktn.no LIN SCAN United Arab Emirates www.linscaninspection.com NDT Global Germany www.ndt-global.com Pipesurvey International Netherlands www.pipesurveyinternational.com PPSA - Pigging Products and Services Association United Kingdom www.ppsa-online.com Romstar Malaysia www.romstargroup.com Rosen Switzerland www.rosen-group.com Inspection 1/2 Ametek – Division Creaform Germany www.creaform3d.com Applus RTD Germany www.applusrtd.com
44 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL COMPANY DIRECTORY Inspection 2/2 Leak Detection 2/2 EMPIT Germany www.empit.com Integrity Management Metegrity Canada www.metegrity.com Pipeline Innovations United Kingdom www.pipeline-innovations.com Leak Detection 1/2 Asel-Tech Brazil www.asel-tech.com Atmos International United Kingdom www.atmosi.com Direct-C Canada www.direct-c.ca Entegra United States www.entegrasolutions.com Fotech Solutions United Kingdom www.fotech.com GOTTSBERG Leak Detection Germany www.leak-detection.de Liwacom Germany www.liwacom.de MSA Germany www.MSAsafety.com/detection OptaSense United Kingdom www.optasense.com Pergam Suisse Switzerland www.pergam-suisse.ch PSI Software Germany www.psioilandgas.com sebaKMT Germany www.sebakmt.com SolAres (Solgeo / Aresys) Italy www.solaresweb.com VEGASE France www.vegase.fr Monitoring Airborne Technologies Austria www.airbornetechnologies.at Krohne Messtechnik Germany www.krohne.com PHOENIX CONTACT Germany www.phoenixcontact.de/prozess SolSpec United States www.solspec.solutions Operators 1/2 Transneft Russia www.en.transneft.ru/
PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 45 COMPANY DIRECTORY Operators 2/2 TRAPIL France www.trapil.com/en/ Qualification & Recruitment YPPE - Young Pipeline Professionals Europe International Safety 2/2 HIMA Germany www.hima.de Signage Franken Plastik Germany www.frankenplastik.de/en Pump and Compressor Stations Surface Preparation TNO The Netherlands www.pulsim.tno.nl MONTI - Werkzeuge GmbH Germany www.monti.de Repair Trenchless Technologies CITADEL TECHNOLOGIES United States www.cittech.com Clock Spring NRI United States www.clockspring.com RAM-100 United States www.ram100intl.com T.D. Williamson United States www.tdwilliamson.com Research & Development Pipeline Transport Institute (PTI LLC) Russia www.en.niitn.transneft.ru Safety 1/2 DEHN & SÖHNE Germany www.dehn-international.com/en Bohrtec Germany www.bohrtec.com GSTT - German Society for Trenchless Technology Germany www.gstt.de Rädlinger Primus Line Germany www.primusline.com Valves & Fittings AUMA Germany www.auma.com Zwick Armaturen Germany www.zwick-armaturen.de Further boost your brand awareness and list your company within the ptj - Company Directory www.pipeline-journal.net/advertise
Promoted and Organized by: Platinum Sponsor Gold Sponsor Bronze Sponsor Copper Sponsor Institutional Support JULY 2019 In the next Edition of ptj: Pipeline Planning & Construction The next issue of Pipeline Technology Journal (ptj) will address Pipeline Planning & Construction This is a great opportunity for skilled authors to submit insightful papers and to contribute to the global pipeline industry’s constant professional exchange.
15TH PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE Europe’s Leading Pipeline Conference and Exhibition 30 MARCH - 2 APRIL 2020, ESTREL CONVENTION CENTER, BERLIN, GERMANY www.pipeline-conference.com Next Issue: July 2019 Pipeline Technology Journal In the next Edition of ptj: Pipeline Planning & Construction www.pipeline-journal.net Event Calendar Offshore MENA Congress 2019 11 - 12 June 2019 Cairo, Egypt LNG Western Africa Conference 2019 8 - 9 July 2019 Accra, Ghana UESI Pipelines 2019 Conference 21 July 2019 Nashville, Tennessee, USA Rio Pipeline - Conference & Exhibition 3 - 5 September 2019 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Commercial UAV Expo Americas 28 - 30 October 2019 Las Vegas, USA 15th Pipeline Technology Conference 30 March - 2 April 2020 Berlin, Germany
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