8 1 0 2 / 6 e u s s I e Journal Pipeline Technology Journal On The Occasion of Transneft’s 25 Anniversary On The Occasion of Transneft’s 25 Anniversary COMPREHENSIVE TOPICS www.pipeline-journal.net ISSN 2196-4300
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PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 3 EDITORIAL Competition stimulates business Under this well-known slogan one should classify what can currently be observed in pipeline technology: Large TSO with their technology subsidiaries from Asia and Eastern Europe (e.g. Transneft, Sinopec and others) are pushing their way into the markets in North America and Western Europe. This development naturally has several facets: On the one hand, they bring with them specific experience that re- quire the companies that have dominated the technology and the market to adapt their technology. On the other hand, their step into the international markets also enables these companies to compare their technology with their competitors and adapt it to the requirements. Dr. Klaus Ritter Editor in Chief However, both opportunities can only be exploited if they can take place on the ba- sis of an open market. This means that technology and service providers also gain access to the markets where their new competitors are at home. Technical journals as well as conferences and exhibitions are the right channel to foster such an expansion. However, entrants to new markets must consider that they are expected to convince potential customers that their technology can com- pete in terms of safety, reliability and profitability. As one of the world’s largest TSO, Transneft gained valuable operational experi- ence with large pipelines and therefore possesses Know-How, it is displayed in this editions segment “Company Profile” on the occasion of the company’s 25th anni- versary. This segment offers companies, in this case Transneft and its subsidiaries PTI and Diascan, the opportunity to present themselves in a striking way. These companies will also present themselves at the upcoming Pipeline Technology Con- ference (ptc), 18-21 March 2019 in Berlin. The next ptc will feature an array of interesting plenary discussions. One of them will focus on Eurasia and the regions significance for the pipeline industry. In this context, the appearance of the International Association of Oil Transporters IAOT at the ptc exhibition is also interesting. By providing a platform for international exchange, ptc and ptj both aim to foster the use of state of the art pipeline solutions in order to increase our industry’s safe- ty, reliability and profitability. Yours, > Dr. Klaus Ritter, President EITEP Institut
4 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL THIS ISSUE’S COMPLETE CONTENT DECEMBER 2018 / ISSUE 6 TECHNICAL ARTICLES RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY Numerical Simulation of External Loads on Buried Pipelines Johannes Brückner / Dr. Ulrich Marewski / Dr. Michael Steiner Open Grid Europe The new TRFL 2017: how to Fulfil the Requirements for Leak Detection Systems Daniel Vogt KROHNE Oil & Gas BV Implementation of Engineering Critical Assessment and Fitness for Purpose Approach on Tanap Pipeline Welding Arash Shadmani TANAP Impact of Wind Turbine Mechanical Failure on Pipelines Buried Nearby Francesco Olivi / Agostino Napolitano / Carlo Caffarelli Saipem 08 16 24 30 COMPANY PROFILE 38 New Routes for Business 44 Energy Saving Technologies at Work 50 REPORTS CONFERENCES / SEMINARS / EXHIBITIONS Linkedin Showcase ptc 2019 Preview www.twitter.com/pipelinejournal www.facebook.com/ Pipeline.Technology.Conference www.pipeline-journal.net ptc 2019 Conference Program ptj Job & Career Market Event Calender Company Directory Page 62 54 58 60 67
Construction on Enbridge’s Line 3 Replacement Program progresses in Alberta and Saskatchewan. The L3RP, with a targeted completion date of 2019, will fully replace 1,660 kilometres (1,031 miles) of Line 3, one of the primary conduits in Enbridge’s Mainline crude oil network, between Hardisty and Superior, Wisconsin. In Canada, this $5.3-billion project will create thousands of jobs, generate hundreds of millions of dollars in tax revenue, and contribute billions to the gross domestic product (GDP). Copyright: Enbridge
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF EXTERNAL LOADS ON BURIED PIPELINES Johannes Brückner, Dr. Ulrich Marewski, Dr. Michael Steiner > Open Grid Europe Abstract Within the scope of the presented work, a simulation model was developed which completely depicts the buried pipeline and the surrounding soil. The model was validated using a number of analytical methods. The bedding conditions of the pipe trench are described by means of a standardized criterion which takes into account the filled soil type and the degree of compaction. The modular design allows the application of any loads, e.g. earth loads, traffic loads or temperature strains. The result provides a three-dimensional deformation plot of the pipeline and the ground. The “extended elastic analysis” accord- ing to EN 1594 is referenced as stress criterion for structural integrity assessment. The model can be used to answer specific engineering questions, e.g. in the framework of structural modifications or construction of high-pressure gas pipelines. The holistic assessment can also be provided to authorized technical experts to support the scope of expert opinions.
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 9 BACKGROUND At the European level, the functional requirements for pipelines in public gas grids at operating pressures of above 16 bar are governed by EN 1594 . According to Section 7.2, the internal pressure is supposed to be the leading load case for the dimensioning (“standard load condition”). The influence of additional loads and the interaction with the surrounding soil are not taken into consideration in this approach. For pipeline sections where significant external loads may be encountered, a more extensive planning has to be performed using es- tablished analysis methods as specified by Section 7.3. There are several technical assessment concepts avail- able which utilize simplifications to address day-to-day engineering needs for standard cases of buried piping systems. VdTÜV Instruction Sheet 1063  can be for example used to investigate ovalization of the pipeline’s cross-section subjected to traffic loads. The application of the EN 1594 Annexes A to F enables the estimation of soil-induced shifts which may result in additional strain- ing along the pipeline. The standardized methods consid- er individual aspects, e.g. with regard to settlement, min- ing subsidence, frost heave or potential impact caused by earthquakes. Comparatively few assessment models are available for holistic investigations of complex and combined load profiles. As a possible approach, EN 1594 specifies numerical simulation models in line with the finite element method (EN 1594:2013, Section 7.3.3). NUMERICAL ASSESSMENT APPROACH The finite element method is basically suitable for the numerical solution of physical field problems which are described by differential equations. The method has “The potential for numerical approaches has been increased rapidly over the last years, also in the field of pipeline integrity. Johannes Brückner become an efficient engineering tool against the back- ground of the continuously increasing computing capaci- ty of modern computers. The accuracy of each numerical model must be evidenced by means of comparisons with established methods (validation). Within the context of the work presented here, a finite element model has been developed which simulates the buried pipeline subjected to any load configuration. Validation has been performed step by step for the pipeline and the surrounding soil. All simulations have been carried out using the commercial software package Abaqus FEA, Version 6.13-3. First, three decisive base load cases were simulated on the straight pipe and compared with analytical solu- tions from literature. The ovalization load case (Figure 1) is shown exemplarily of this process step. Surface loads which correspond to the bedding conditions of the buried pipeline were applied to the outer surface of the pipe. The lateral soil pressure was varied as a relative component of the vertical load over the lateral pressure coefficient λ along the lines of . Maximum ovalization results from the theoretical case of the laterally unsup- ported pipe (λ = 0). The simulated circumferential stress very well matches the analytical solution as specified by . Similar to this load case, the deflection of the pipe subjected to a bending load was simulated for an elastic bedded pipe and compared with the analytical solution according to . The internal pressure load case was validated with reference to . Surface load in vertical direction Internal pipe surface, 12 o’clock External pipe surface, 9 o’clock Lateral pressure coefficient acc. to  Simulated ovalization Internal pipe surface, 9 o’clock External pipe surface, 6 o’clock Figure 1: Simulated ovalization in comparison with analytical solution
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 11 Quadratic Soil body with rectangular load (quarter-symmetric) sKP,FE = 16,9 mm sKP,Kany = 18,4 mm Simulated settlement for soil stiffness 5 MN/m² sKP = 16,9 mm smax = 23,1 mm Figure 3: Simulated settlement in comparison to standardized calculation traversals at different crossing angles can be simulated. Since the consistency of the lateral soil beside the pipe has an influence on the ovalization stress, this param- eter has been considered in the simulation model as a numerical bedding criterion. ATV-DVWK Code of Prac- tice 127  defines four soil zones which characterize the layer composition within the pipe trench: Numerical model Truck load (60-tonne) Rotatable disc 10 m Pipeline 20 m Soil body 50 m Cover 1 m Cover 2 m Cover 3 m Nominal width 400 Nominal width 900 Nominal width 1200 Crossing angle 0° Crossing angle 30° Crossing angle 90° Figure 5: Soil zones according to ATV-DVWK-A 127 E1 designates the cover fill above the pipe crown and E4 the soil below the pipe. Soil zones E2 and E3 designate the lateral soil layer, with the possibility of distinction between the backfill in the trench and undisturbed soil (E2 ≠ E3) or if viewed as an overall layer (E2 = E3). The effective vertical stiffness modulus is then quantified us- Figure 4: Parametric model of the pipe-soil-system
12 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY ing coefficients which depend on the conditions encoun- tered during construction work: 1 D 2 f 2 20 f E EB E2 = effective soil stiffness modulus, f1 = coefficient for consideration of creep properties, f2 = coefficient for the degree of compaction, αB = reduction factor for consideration of the trench width, E20 = global soil stiffness For global soil stiffness E20,  specifies conservative minimum values depending on the backfilled soil type. For the purpose of assessing already laid pipelines, this value can be substituted by results from dynamic probing, e.g. in line with . The effective lateral soil stiffness then follows from reduction via the coefficients f1, f2 and αB. For detailed application and classification, see . By varying the coefficients, the lateral bedding conditions can be sim- ulated and systematically investigated (e.g. soil consisten- cy, Proctor density, size and type of the pipe trench, etc.). Load case 1 „Dead load“ The numerical solution for the defined model parameters is carried out in three load cases which build on each other step by step. In load case 1, the unpressurized pipeline is subjected to the system’s dead weight only (basic status after pipelaying). In load case 2, the impact of the local additional load is superimposed with the first load case. In the given example, the unpressurized pipe- line is traversed by a 60-tonne truck. In load case 3, the internal pressure is also applied so that the structural stress at nominal conditions is simulated (here, traversal of the pressurized pipeline). Figure 6 shows the numerical results for the described load case in the pipeline’s cross-section (calculated parameters: nominal diameter 900 mm, wall thickness 12.5 mm, operating pressure 67.5 bar, pipe/soil-interac- tion frictionless, specific soil weight 19.6 kN/m³, glob- al soil stiffness Es,14 = 20 MN/m², lateral soil stiffness Es,23 = f1 ∙ f2 ∙ αB ∙ Es,14 = 0.8 ∙ 0.75 ∙ 0.85 ∙ 20 MN/m² = 10.2 MN/m², soil cover 1 m, 60-tonne truck load at crossing angle 90°). Load case 2 „Dead load + Traffic load“ Vertical soil stress Hoop stress in pipe wall Load case 3 „Dead load + Traffic load + Pressure“ Max. Vertical soil stress Hoop stress in pipe wall Vertical soil stress Hoop stress in pipe wall Figure 6: Simulated stress caused by a 60-tonne truck load (cross section)
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 13 The middle diagrams give the vertical soil stress in depth sections of 0.29 m (close to surface), of 1.0 m (pipe crown level), of 1.457 m (pipe centreline level) and of 2.06 m (close to pipe bottom level). Load cases 2 and 3 shows a characteristic hump-shaped stress profile below the truck axles. The relative peak under the middle axis corresponds to the increased system stiffness given by the pipeline. The absolute value falls away rapidly with increasing depth. Corresponding to the cross-section perspective, the right-hand diagram row shows the hoop stress in the pipe wall on the inner and outer fibres (index i for internal and index a for external). The cross section is shown perpendicular below the truck load (variable UM) and the at the model end (variable U0, outside of the influence by the traffic load). The charac- teristic shape caused by the pipe ovalization is clearly visible. The magnitude of the circumferential stress in load case 3 (pipeline subjected to operating pressure) shows that the internal pressure is the leading load case in this configuration. Load case 1 „Dead load“ “Simulation models provide efficient tools to assess complex structural configurations of pipe systems including the soil. Johannes Brückner Similarly, Figure 7 shows the configuration in length- wise section with diagrams of the vertical soil stress (middle column, depth sections of 0.29 m, 1.0 m and 2.06 m) and the longitudinal stress in the pipe wall (right column). The middle truck axis causes a perpen- dicular load across the pipeline which led to a bend- ing-typical configuration. The soil underneath the pipe acts as elastic bedding in this scenario. The distribution of the vertical soil stress corresponds to the characteristic shape of the truck load, with max- imum values below the tires. The red graph reflects the contact pressure on the pipeline crown at 12 o’clock position. In the right-hand diagrams are the correspond- Load case 2 „Dead load + Traffic load“ Longitudinal stress in pipe wall Vertical soil stress Longitudinal stress in pipe wall Load case 3 „Dead load + Traffic load + Pressure“ Vertical soil stress Max. Vertical soil stress Longitudinal stress in pipe wall Figure 7: Simulated stress caused by a 60-tonne truck load (longitudinal section)
14 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY Intersection with a dyke Dyke Pipeline Intersection with a railway route Railway Load module Pipeline Crossing under a canal Water load Pipeline Railway load LM 71 acc. to Eurocode 1 the pipeline, e.g. due to thermal expan- sion or subjected to allowable pipe bending stress due to laying. The soil-mechanical constitutive model can be expanded on demand. In this respect, it has to be considered that the number of required soil param- eters might be in- crease significantly. Notes on numerical implementation may be found in  and . Figure 8: Multiple application options given by modular concept ing longitudinal stresses in the pipe wall given, for each circumferential position on internal wall side (indices L3i, L6i, L12i) and external wall side (indices L3a, L6a and L12a). The curves show a bending-typical variant under the influence of the external load. The developed simulation model provides a parametric structure for an easy variation of the geometrical prop- erties (pipe diameter, wall thickness and soil cover). STRENGTH CRITERION The influence of the external load results in a multi-axial stress condition in the pipe wall which can be calculated to an equivalent stress in line with the “extended elastic analysis” as per EN 1594 , Section 7.4.1. For structural strength assessments, a stress level up to the specified minimum yield strength (SMYS) of the pipe material is permitted, if all additional loads have been considered in the calculation: The pipeline mate- rial characteristics can be defined by the Abaqus material modules on de- mand. Given by the separation between soil body and load module, the scenar- io can be freely var- ied by modification of the static load on the terrain surface. Figure 8 shows three examples of how the load module can be used (railway load LM 71 according to ). Furthermore, Abaqus features the possibility of defining further additional loads on Numerical model Truck load (60-tonne) Slip road Pipeline Distribution of the vertical soil stress von Mises equivalent stress under nominal pipe pressure condition σv,max. 390,0 MPa Figure 9: Simulated pipeline statics under a motorway
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 15 W 2 y 2 W z d tR 0 5 . 3 2 W x GEH V v V V V V V V V V V z y x x y z x y 2 2 2 z GEH = Mises equivalent stress, σx, σy, σz = normal stress- σv es, τx, τy,τz = shear stresses, Rt0.5 = SMYS For the purposes of practical application, the given concept provides an approach for structural assess- ment of any load configuration against a standardized strength criterion. PRACTICAL EXAMPLE As a practical example, the construction of a motorway slip road is shown which was to be banked up above an existing pipeline of the German network operator Open Grid Europe. The crossing situation was modelled as shown in Figure 9 for the following calculation parame- ters: nominal diameter 800, wall thickness 14.2 mm, nom- inal pressure 100 bar, material grade L 485 MB as defined by  with SMYS 485 MPa, ramp 4.7 m high and 30 m wide, soil cover without ramp 1.9 m, specific soil weight 21 kN/m³, exact modelling of the soil layer stiffness in line with a subsoil survey, 60-tonne truck load as per . For the purpose of considering all potential loads, a thermal longitudinal pipeline expansion for a temperature differ- ence of 25°C and an additional elastic laying stress in line with DVGW Code of Practice G 463  were applied. These assumptions are to be seen as conservative. Figure 9 shows the vertical soil stress distribution and the von Mises equivalent stress for the nominal pipe pressure condition. Deformation has been scaled by a factor of 20 for visualisation purposes. The maximum equivalent stress is 390.0 MPa and lies perpendicular below the centre of the 60-tonne truck load on the inner pipe wall side at 12 o’clock position. Since the maximum equivalent stress is less than the specified minimum yield strength of the pipe material (390.0 MPa < 485 MPa), the structural design fulfils the formal requirements according to EN 1594  and is thus acceptable in terms of strength. SUMMARY The presented numerical model can be used to inves- tigate specific engineering questions which are not covered by the validity of simplified approaches. The modular structure allows any loads to be applied, e.g. as a result of earth banks, traffic loads, canals or railway lines. Further additional loads, e.g. caused by tempera- ture expansion or pipelaying, can also be considered. The simulated stress level is assessed by a standard- ized criterion in line with the “extended elastic analysis” as defined by . For practical applications, it provides an expert tool for the assessment of new constructions or modifications of high-pressure gas pipelines. The re- sult can also be provided to certified assessors as part of their statements. References                   DIN EN 1594: Gas infrastructure - Pipelines for maximum operating pressure over 16 bar - Functional requirements: German version EN 1594: 2013 VdTÜV-Merkblatt 1063: Technische Richtlinie zur statischen Berechnung einge-erdeter Stahlrohre: 1978 Sturmath, R.: Statik geschlossener Kreisringbauteile: Berechnungsbeispiele aus dem Maschinenbau und der Bautechnik: VDI-Verlag: 1988 Kempfert, H.-G.; Raithel, M.: Geotechnik nach Eurocode: Band 1: Bodenmechanik: 3. Auflage: Beuth Verlag: 2012 Budynas, R.G.: Advanced Strength and Applied Stress Analysis: 2nd ed.: McGraw-Hill: New York: pp. 348–352: 1999 Boussinesq, J.: Application des potentiels à l’étude de l’équilibre et du mouvement des solides élastiques: Gauthier-Villard: Paris: 1885 Love, A. E. H.: The stress produced in a semi-infinite solid by pressure on part of the boundary: Philo- sophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: Ser. A: pp. 377-420: 1928 DIN 1072: Road bridges: Design loads: 1985 DIN 4019: Soil - Analysis of settlement: 2015 Kany, M.: Berechnung von Flächengründungen: 2. Auflage: Verlag Ernst und Sohn: 1974 DIN EN ISO 22476-2: Geotechnical investigation and testing - Field testing - Part 2: Dynamic probing: German version EN ISO 22476-2: 2012 Steinbrenner, W.: Tafeln zur Setzungsberechnung: S. 121-124: 1934 ATV-DVWK-Arbeitsblatt 127: Statische Berechnung von Abwasserkanälen und -leitungen: 3. Auflage: August 2000 DIN EN 1991-2: Eurocode 1: Actions on structures - Part 2: Traffic loads on bridges: German version EN 1991-2: 2010 Helwany, S.: Applied Soil Mechanics with ABAQUS Applications: John Wiley & Sons: 2007 Wehnert, M.: Ein Beitrag zur drainierten und undrainierten Analyse in der Geotechnik: Dissertation am Institut für Geotechnik: Universität Stuttgart: Mitteilung 53: 2006 DIN EN 10208-2: Steel pipes for pipelines for combustible fluids - Technical delivery conditions - Part 2: Pipes of requirement class B: German version EN 10208-2: 2009 DVGW G 463 (A): High Pressure Gas Steel Pipelines for a Design Pressure of more than 16 bar; Construction: 2016 Authors Johannes Brückner Open Grid Europe Structural Engineer & DVGW Certified Expert johannes.brueckner@open-grid- europe.com Dr. Ulrich Marewski Open Grid Europe Head of Integrity Pipelines ulrich.marewski@open-grid- europe.com Dr. Michael Steiner Open Grid Europe Head of Integrity michael.steiner@open-grid- europe.com
THE NEW TRFL 2017 AND HOW TO FULFIL THE REQUIREMENTS REGARDING LEAK DETECTION SYSTEMS Daniel Vogt > KROHNE Oil & Gas BV Abstract: Requirements for pipeline leak detection systems increase continuously. In Germany the operation of leak detection systems is regulated by the TRFL (Technische Regel für Fernleitungen). Even though it is a national standard, it has international acceptance as for example API1175 recommendations follow the TRFL. In May 2017 an updated version of the TRFL has been issued. This presentation describes the differences between the TRFL 2011 and the new version regarding leak detection. The added and the classic leak detection methods are presented and their technical capabilities and limitations are described. Each method is sorted into the context of appendix VIII of the current TRFL. Finally it will be shown how all leak detection requirements of the new TRFL can be achieved by one single system showing a practical imple- mentation in a real-world example.
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 17 Transportation of fluids in pipelines is increasing all over the world, and with good reason: pipelines are among the safest and most economical transportation systems over long routes. To ensure this cost-effectiveness and safety, both new, and especially existing, pipelines must reflect the standard of the most current technology. Leaks pose a potential safety risk. Leaks occur for a wide variety of reasons, from earthquakes, corrosion and material failure to drilling by product thieves. Special leak detection systems are often used to limit these risks. In general, leak detec- tion in pipelines refers to the recognition and quick localization of product leaks. Reasons to employ leak detection include the following: • • • • To minimize the effects of accidents To minimize downtime To minimize product loss Regulatory compliance Leak detection in pipelines can be performed in various ways, from simple visual controls during inspections to computer-supported systems that monitor conditions, even for underground and undersea pipelines. Selecting a suitable leak detection system is not an easy task for pipeline operators. The system must meet the needs of the particular application and comply with [relevant] regulations. The “Technical Rules for Pipelines” (German: TRFL “Technische Regel für Rohrfernleitungsanlagen) are published since 2003 by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. Those rules are the result of consolidating three former regulations, the “Regulation for pipelines trans- porting dangerous liquids” (German: TRbF 301 „Richtlinie für Fernleitungen zum Befördern gefährdender Flüs- sigkeiten“), the “Regulation for pipelines transporting products dangerous for water” (German: RRwS „Richtlinie für Rohrleitungen zum Befördern wassergefährdender Stoffe“) and the “Technical rules for high pressure gas pipelines” (German: TRGL “Technische Regeln für Gasho- chdruckleitungen”) The “Technical Rules for Pipelines” were originally intended only for applications within the German federal territory; nowadays they provide a model for other national regulations. In May 2017 an updated version of the TRFL has been issued, including modifications to the relevant leak de- tection paragraphs. These changes should be known to all pipeline operators. It also kept one of the most mem- orable and important statement regarding sensitivity: The minimum detectable leak rate will depend on the chemical and physical properties of the medium, the local conditions and the prevailing operating conditions. It is determined on a case-by-case basis by an inspec- tion authority. Therefore the TRFL leak detection point of view is not a plain technical consideration stating rigorous detection thresholds or insisting on specific methodologies, it
18 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY covers leak detection requirements from an operational point of view. The general requirements remain un- changed and cover all pipeline operating conditions. pumping and paused flow conditions described in the annex remained unchanged, new methods for the detec- tion of gradual leaks however have been added. In continuously operating industrial processes the TRFL requires two different physical quantities to be used for leak detection in steady state conditions (flow and pressure remain unchanged over a long period). One of these methods, or some other, must also detect leaks in transient operating conditions. In 2010 revision, TRFL allows exceptions. In pipelines for gases and brine a single method is sufficient. If a failure of this method is not immediately detected and pumping operation can subsequently be stopped, gas pipelines must be monitored using a second method. In oxygen pipelines one method is sufficient, provided that a failure of the method or a part of the method can be recognized immediately and it is possible to compen- sate for the failure. Next to the new possibilities to use leak detection pigs, distributed temperature sensing or manual inspection of pipeline corridor with a gas probe, the so called Pres- sure-Temperature-Method, or in short form DT-Method (German: D-T-Verfahren (Druck-Temperatur-Messver- fahren)) according to VdTÜV-Technical bulletin 1051 has been added. KROHNE, a manufacturer of measuring technology and established supplier of systems to the oil and gas indus- try, with more than 30 years of experience in leak detec- tion and localization, developed E-RTTM, a leading tech- nology for continuous internal monitoring of pipelines. E-RTTM stands for Extended-Real Time Transient Model, which extends a feature generation module with leak signature analysis using leak pattern detection. In 2017 revision, the exception for gas pipelines has been removed completely. In oxygen and brine pipelines one method is sufficient, provided that a failure of the method or a part of the method can be rec- ognized immediately and it is possible to compensate for the failure. This is probably the most important change for gas pipeline operators found in TRFL 2017. The rules also require leak detection in other operational conditions like pump pause conditions. One technical meth- od must be applied to detection of spills during pauses in pumping. Detection of gradual leaks is also required. One technical or other process must be applied to detection of gradual leaks. According to leak localization it must be ensured by a process or by other arrange- ments that damaged areas can be quickly located. While some wordings in the above para- graphs have been refined and adapted ac- cording to the slightly reorganized naming conventions, the general meanings remain unchanged. Acceptable methods are described in an annex. This annex received the second ma- jor change in the regulations. The methods for leak detection and localization during Principle of Extended Real-Time Transient Model (E-RTTM) Flowmeter Pressure and temperature transmitters Flowmeter Flowrate measured Flowrate measured Temperature and pressure measured Virtual pipeline Flowrate calculated, leak free Comparing measured values to calculated values Filtered decision values Leak signature analysis using pattern recognition Leak signature database Leak alert, leak rate, leak position Figure 1: Basic functional principle of E-RTTM
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 19 An E-RTTM leak detection system creates a virtual im- age of a pipeline based on measured data. Measured values from flow, temperature and pressure sensors installed at the inlet and outlet of the pipeline and along the pipeline in places such as pump and valve stations are crucial. The flow, pressure, temperature and density at each point along the virtual pipeline are calculated from the measured pressure and temperature values. E- RTTM-based leak detection systems are able to handle transient conditions that are not recognized by less sophisticated internal leak detection systems. An E-RTTM- based leak detection system works with dynamic values, which also boosts robustness, the sys- tem becomes independent of the absolute accuracy of the virtual pipeline. It can adapt automatically and very quickly to changes in the operating conditions such as sensor failure, communications failure, a valve closing or a product change in the pipeline. The model compares the calculated flow values with the actual values from the flow meters. If the model detects a flow discrepancy, the leak signature analysis module then determines whether it was caused by an instrument error, a gradual leak or a sudden leak. The E-RTTM introduced here is the basis of the PipePa- trol leak detection system by KROHNE. The system is suitable for monitoring liquid and gas pipelines (includ- ing liquefied gas and supercritical products) and meets all the requirements of TRFL. E-RTTM provides a high degree of sensitivity and quick leak detection with real-time comparison of existing measuring results against leak signatures, which are stored in a database. Comparing of mea- sured values with the leak signatures is also critical to the reliability because it provides a high degree of protection from false alarms. Next to the vertical combination of the virtual pipeline with pattern recognition, a horizontal approach combin- ing different TRFL methods into one system is present. The latest versions of PipePatrol also cover the TRFL requirement for gradual leak detection as they deploy the Pressure-Temperature-Method. Figure 2: Extended functional principle of E-RTTM
20 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY DT-METHOD The DT-Method provides detection of gradual leaks for pipelines in shut in conditions. The monitored section needs to be isolated by tight valves from any other process or pipeline. In addition, the pipeline needs to be filled with product and no gas pockets should be present. If an isolated section leaks, pressure in the section will decrease. DT-Method monitors the pipeline pressure and will raise an alarm in the event of a pressure drop. Temperature however does also influence pressure with- in a pipeline, thus monitoring pressure only will result in false positives or may hide leaks. Temperature drop will cause pressure to decrease, where rising temperature will cause pressure to increase. This is why the DT-Meth- od also considers the temperature of the product. Based on measured temperature, pipeline volume and the pressure at start of the test, DT-Method continu- ously calculates the reference pressure depending on temperature in case of a leak free pipeline. This refer- ence pressure will now be compared against the actual measured pressure. A difference exceeding a predefined threshold is an indication for a leak. In VdTÜV-Technical bulletin 1051 this fundamental idea is rephrased in a way that an average leak rate is determined over the test interval, and not the pres- sure difference. Instead of monitoring the difference between temperature compensated reference pressure and measured pressure, the formula is converted to result in the change of product volume in the pipeline, which is divided by the actual duration of the test. For long time intervals this average volume flow converges to zero for leak free pipelines or against the leak rate for leaking pipelines. This method is fully integrated into the PipePatrol software package. It is suitable for any liquid pipeline and not limited to water pipelines only as the original VdTÜV- Technical bulletin 1051. Required field inputs are pressure and temperature measurements at the monitored pipeline. Depending on the position their influence will be weighted before used for the calculation. Boundary requirements are closed, tight valves and a minimum pressure of 3.5bar or a pre- ferred pressure of 10bar everywhere inside of the iso- lated section. This implies the elevation profile should be taken into consideration when minimum pressure is determined and boundary conditions are verified. PipePatrol will automatically start a DT-Test as soon as the boundary requirements are fulfilled. Once a positive result is determined, the system will print a report and save the results in Excel compatible Principle of tightness monitoring Leak rate Actual leak size No leak Time Temperature transmitter Closed valve Closed valve Gradual leaks Figure 3: PipePatrol DT Principle file format allowing third party authority to verify and use the data for further ac- tivities. The test continues until valves are opened or it is stopped manually up to a configurable maximum duration. If no positive result has been obtained until valves are re-opened or test is stopped, the sys- tem will print a report with a negative result. PRACTICAL EXAMPLE In the last year PipePatrol DT has been deployed on several pipelines. One example is a 1.2km 12” pipeline transporting Naphtha. As during regular operation phases of shut in conditions are present, DT
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 21 Method was chosen to monitor this pipeline for gradual leaks. Other methods which were also considered could not be used due to existing traces of hydrocarbons in the pipeline environment. The system has been imple- mented on the LDS server supplied by customers IT department. The server is connected to a set of redun- dant OPC servers found in the demilitarized zone. The demilitarized zone connects via a firewall to the operat- ing company’s terminal bus. This protects the customers SCADA system and DCS from any influence of 3rd party applications, but also al- lows remote access according to latest company it stan- dards to the systems for the suppliers. The redundant OPC servers provide the field data of pipeline instrumen- tation and valves which are read by PipePatrol DT. As always required in Germany, leak detection systems need to be approved by independent third party author- ity like TUV. As systems are tested and approved for all operating conditions and methods, PipePatrol DT has also been subject for approval. Instead of creating a gradual leak, the opposite proce- dure was accepted as test criteria. An automatic PipePa- trol DT test has been processed, and in parallel indepen- dent third party authority did a manual DT test according to VdTÜV-Technical bulletin 1051. Figure 4: PipePatrol System Architecture
22 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY Figure 5: VdTÜV 1051 Volume Flow in Excel diagram The results printed in the report of PipePatrol were com- pared against the results of the third party authority. Be- cause both reports showed the same calculation results over the test period, proper functionality of PipePatrol DT could be demonstrated. The graphical output of the volume flow shows the de- sired result for a leak free pipeline, it converges to zero. CONCLUSION The new TRFL 2017 incorporates two major changes for pipeline operators. The exception for gas pipelines has been deleted. detection and localization, included the DT-Method into PipePatrol E-RTTM, a leading technology for continuous internal monitoring of pipelines. Pipeline operators have now the ability to opt for a leak detection system complying with all and latest TRFL requirements from one single source. Because the DT test is started automatically with every shut in condition, regular maintenance and any regular testing can be simplified dramatically. Authors Gas pipelines which are subject to TRFL 2017 require two different physical quantities to be used for leak detec- tion in steady state conditions. According to the Annex I additional methods for gradual leak detection are now officially accepted, including the DT-Method. Daniel Vogt KROHNE Oil & Gas BV Productmanager PipePatrol firstname.lastname@example.org KROHNE, a manufacturer of measuring technology and established supplier of systems to the oil and gas industry, with more than 30 years of experience in leak
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IMPLEMENTATION OF ENGINEERING CRITICAL ASSESSMENT AND FITNESS FOR PURPOSE APPROACH ON TANAP PIPELINE WELDING Arash Shadmani > TANAP Abstract Following the decision of TANAP management to implement the latest technology on the Construction of the Trans Anatolia Natural Gas Pipeline (TANAP), and to validate such technology by means of improvements (in schedule, cost and quality), a decision was taken to implement Engineering Critical Assessment (ECA), as a fit- ness for purpose approach to produce alternative acceptance criteria, as opposed to conventional Quality Control (QC) approach workmanship acceptance criteria. By applying this approach to TANAP pipeline girth welds, the average Repair Rate (average repair rate data provided as number of repaired welds versus the total number of welds) significantly decreased for both Onshore and Offshore section pipelines.
INTRODUCTION As part of the Southern Gas Corridor, the Trans Ana- tolia Natural Gas Pipeline (TANAP) aims to transport Azeri Gas from the Shah Deniz gas field and other fields of Azerbaijan, and possibly from other neigh- bouring countries, to Turkey and Europe via the Southern Gas Corridor comprising of the South Cauca- sus Pipeline (SCPX) extending from Caspian Sea to Georgia/Turkey border and the Trans-Adriatic Pipeline (TAP) extending from Greece/Turkey border to Italy. TANAP project is an API 5L X70 onshore pipeline system of 1850 km in length comprising 56” diameter with three different wall thicknesses of 19.45, 23.34 and 28.01mm as well as 48” diameter with 16.67, 20.01 and 24.01mm. It also includes a 21 km of API 5L X65 offshore section beneath the Marmara Sea comprising two parallel 36” of 22.9mm wall thickness pipelines. The pipeline system will transport natural gas to required specifications and quantity and implemented in four phases. The project also comprises 7 Com- pression Stations (CS), 4 Measuring Stations (MS), 11 Pigging Stations (PS), 49 Block valve Stations (BVS) and 2 Off-Take Stations. Engineering Critical Assessment (ECA) is a fitness for purpose approach based on fracture mechanics prop- erties of the linepipe base material and weldments which is used to produce alternative acceptance criteria for TANAP Onshore/Offshore pipeline girth welds flaws. This approach however is only practical when used in conjunction with Automatic Ultrasound Techniques (AUT) as the Non Destructive Testing (NDT) method for the assessment of the pipeline girth weld flaws which is discussed in a separate article  (Figure 1). The fitness for purpose (FFP) approach using Engi- neering Critical Assessment is to confirm girth welds mechanical integrity under static and cyclic (fatigue loading) stresses during installation and operation in Figure 1: Schematic Illustration of Flaws in pipeline girth weld RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 25 the presence of weld flaws. This approach provides alternative acceptance criteria for planar flaws in the weld metal other than the Quality Control approach workmanship criteria as specified in the various international codes and standards  & . EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Engineering Critical Assessment is used to provide alternative acceptance criteria for TANAP pipeline girth weld flaws, which is generally a more realistic approach compared to Quality Control workmanship acceptance criteria. This is based on a fitness for purpose approach, using much more realistic con- ditions such as the actual flaw size and the specific service conditions. Welding procedure qualification tests API 1104 Annex A guidelines with additional project specification requirements is followed for TANAP onshore stress based designed pipeline sections. In addition to conventional welding procedure qual- ification tests, fracture toughness properties of the weld metal and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) identified by Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) testing in accordance with ISO 15653. Overmatching of actual weld metal strength relative to actual pipe martial strength is confirmed by both con- ventional cross weld tensile testing in accordance with API 1104 Annex A as well as all weld tensile testing using round specimens in accordance with ASTM E8. In order to be able to apply ECA to TANAP pipeline these properties are to be identified for each pipe mill and steel source combination. Considering the linepipe supply chain complexity, applying ECA approach to TANAP pipeline required an extensive welding proce- dure qualification tests. To reduce the number of welding procedure qualifica- tions, repair and tie-in welds excluded from fitness for purpose approach and ECA only applied to mainline welding. TANAP mainline welding produced using mechanised welding systems (m-GMAW). Providing a same filler batch by supplier, the fracture toughness of the weld metal considered independent of the linepipe supply condition. Hence by qualifying combinations of the sources, the number of required qualifications is significantly reduced.
26 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY Mill/Steel Source 1 Source 2 Source 3 Source 4 Source 5 Source 6 1-1 1-2* 2-2 1-3 2-3 3-3 1-4 2-4 3-4* 4-4 Source 1 Source 2 Source 3 Source 4 Source 5 Source 6 1-5 2-5 3-5 4-5 5-5 1-6 2-6 3-6 4-6 5-6* 6-6 *Total 3 qualification tests between sources shown in red can cover all pipe mill/steel source combinations and reduce the required number of WPQT from 21 to3. Table 1: Simplified rationalization philosophy for reducing number of welding procedure qualification tests API 1104 Annex A is not applicable when maximum axial design strain is greater than 0.5%. TANAP pipe- lines consists of number of seismic fault zones where the axial design strain is higher than 0.5%. For these sections depending on the strain level, different ECA approach based on BS 7910 and by producing JR curve using SENT specimens is considered in line with BS 8571 and DNV-RP-F108 (Figure 2 & 3). For minimizing the effect of notch tip constraint and applying less conservative approach Single Edge Notched Tensile (SENT) specimens are used instead of Single Edge Notch Bend (SENB) specimens. Seismic fault crossings with axial design strain level more than 0.5% Furthermore, for higher strain levels, stable tearing assessment considering the stability of the flaws are Figure 2: SENT specimen orientation  Figure 3: SENT test set up
carried out using more advanced fracture toughness behaviour of the girth weld e.g. J-R curve which is a measure of the evolution of the fracture toughness with tearing of the flaw (Figure 4). eca validation TANAP pipeline welds fracture toughness properties used as ECA inputs and cross-checked by random and frequent full production tests. This includes cutting out random produced welds during actual construction and perform full destruc- tive tests to check against the results obtained during welding procedure qualification tests. Furthermore, the produced acceptance criteria also validated on a case-by-case basis using full segment tensile tests having the worst detected weld flaw during construction (Figure 5). In addition, three-dimensional Finite Element Anal- ysis (FEA) modelling is also developed to validate the ECA produced alternative acceptance criteria. Figure 4: J-R curves RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 27 Figure 5: TANAP Pipeline full segment tensile test set up In which case, the crack driving force (J-integral) corresponding to max- imum nominal strain with presence of surface breaking flaw in weld toe at Internal Diameter and Outer Diameter in con- junction with maximum misalignment (worst case scenario) is modelled. RESULTS DISCUSSION Table 2 on the next page tabulated the comparison for reject rate percentage between ECA and QC ap- proach on TANAP onshore and offshore sections as well as The Welding Institute industrial survey figures . For Onshore section applying Annex A of API 1104 reduced the repair rate (average repair rate data provided as number of repaired welds versus the total number of welds) from 9.76% to 3.54%. This essentially
28 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY Mainline Location Number Rejection Rate FFP Rejection Rate QC of Welded Joints Approach Approach Onshore - Lot 4 Offshore 30124 1232 3.54% 0.48% 9.76% 2.6% TWI industrial survey  indicates 3% average repair rate for onshore pipelines and 2% for offshore but doesn’t clarify with ECA or QC workmanship acceptance criteria. Engineering Critical As- sessment is also used to produce practical accep- tance criteria for where the API 1104 Annex A is not applicable, such as seismic fault zones with axial design strain greater than 0.5%. Table 2: TANAP Mainline Girth Welds Reject Rate decreased the required weld repair activities and boosted construction productivity. As for offshore section by applying Appendix A of DNV-OS-F101 and BS 7910 fitness for purpose approach for girth weld acceptance criteria repair rate reduced from 2.6% to less than 0.5%. By applying fitness for purpose approach acceptance criteria to TANAP onshore pipeline the Repair Rate be- came closer to the TWI industrial survey figure of 3%. For offshore section however the TWI figure of 2% ob- tained through Quality Control workmanship accep- tance criteria in accordance with  and by following fitness for purpose path repair rate reduced to less than 0.5%. CONCLUSION This paper in conjunction with reference  discusses the implementation of fitness for purpose approach using advanced technologies in the pipeline industry and its effect on the delivery of the TANAP project’s construction, quality, schedule and cost. Engineering Critical Assessment (ECA) in conjunction with Au- tomated Ultrasonic Testing (AUT) effectively imple- mented on the TANAP project. The fitness for purpose approach ECA is implement- ed to produce alternative girth weld flaws acceptance criteria for TANAP Onshore and Offshore pipeline. The number of required Welding Procedures Qual- ification Tests (WPQT) rationalized by applying a specific qualification strategy (Table 1). Fracture toughness properties used as inputs for ECA are cross checked by random and frequent production tests against the qualification test results. In addition, the alternative acceptance criteria is validated by full segment tensile test and finite element modelling on a case by case basis. All of the ECA approved welds on the TANAP project passed progressive system hydrostatic design proof tests at 1.25 X design pressure (in accordance with ASME B31.8 TANAP pipeline design code) successfully. References            Implementation of automatic ultrasonic testing (AUT) on one of world’s largest pipelines – TANAP, IMMC, 19th International Metallurgy and Materials Congress, Istanbul, Turkey, 25/27 October 2018. API 5L Specification for line pipe, 45th edition, July 2013. API 1104 Welding of pipelines and related facilities, 21st edition, 2012. ASME B31.8 Gas transmission and distribution piping systems, 2014. ASTM E8, Standard test methods for tension testing of metallic materials, 2011. BS 7910, Guide to methods for assessment of flaws in metallic structures, 2013. BS 8571, Method of test for determination of fracture toughness in metallic materials using single edge notched tension (SENT) specimens, 2014. DNV-OS-F101, Submarine pipeline systems, 2013. DNV-RP-F108, Fracture control for pipeline installation methods introducing cyclic plastic strain, 2006 ISO 15653, Method of test for the determination of quasistatic fracture toughness of welds, 2010. https://www.twiglobal.com/technicalknowledge/faqs/what-are-the-typical-repair-rates-for- welded-products-and-what-are-the-main-factors-affecting-them/ Dated: 14/05/2018. Author Applying ECA to the TANAP pipeline girth weld led to produce a fit for purpose acceptance criteria compar- ing to conventional workmanship criteria represented in API 1104 Section 9 for onshore and DNV-OS-F101 Appendix E for offshore. Arash Shadmani TANAP Welding Specialist email@example.com Following the fitness for purpose approach essential- ly boosted the construction productivity and reduced the average repair rate substantially (Table 2).
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IMPACT OF WIND TURBINE MECHANICAL FAILURE ON PIPELINES BURIED NEARBY Francesco Olivi, Agostino Napolitano, Carlo Caffarelli > Saipem Abstract Increasing investments in renewable energy resources has led, in recent years, to the significant growth of wind energy and an associated increase in wind farm installations in many countries. However, the installation of wind turbines has very often been completed in the absence of specific requirements and limitations (e.g. min- imum safety distances) with regard to possible interference with other infrastructures such as buried pipelines. Although the mechanical failure of wind turbines is reportedly considered an unlikely event, the significant energy associated with possible impacts of wind turbine parts (blades, nacelles, etc.) falling to the ground has the potential of creating massive dynamic overpressures within the soil that could threaten the integrity of ser- vices buried nearby. This article describes the state of the art approach to assessing possible impacts on buried pipelines due to this relatively new hazard and presents future developments. In particular, the following are detailed: • a probabilistic analysis of relevant wind turbine failure scenarios, • example of design conditions and requirements for assessing pipeline routes near wind farms, • use of simplified static elastic models to predict possible effects of wind turbine collapse above buried pipelines, • preview of innovative approaches using more refined dynamic-viscoelastic-hardening models.
INTRODUCTION According to “Global Trends in Renewable Energy In- vestment 2017” [Ref./9/], in 2016 the overall investment in renewable energy resources reached a total of $241.6 billion reportedly roughly doubling that of fossil fuel generation and raising the capacity derived from renew- ables to 55 per cent of the overall new power; the high- est to date. Increasing investment in renewable energy resources led, in recent years, to a significant growth in wind energy and an associated increase in wind farm installations in many countries. It is to be noted that Wind Farm and Oil & Gas Pipeline Industries share some of the key criteria for selecting new development areas. In particular, national regula- tions as well as the need to constantly improve sustain- ability performances by minimizing environmental and social impacts associated with the construction and operation of such infrastructures have led to a wide pref- erence for remote and rural areas. As a consequence, in recent years many wind turbines have been installed in shared corridors or in proximity with existing buried pipelines and vice versa. However, they were very often completed in the absence of spe- cific requirements and limitations (e.g. minimum safety distances) with regard to possible mutual interferences. Although the mechanical failure of wind turbines is reportedly considered an unlikely event, the significant energy associated with possible impacts of wind turbine parts (blades, nacelle, etc..) falling to the ground has Figure 1: Pipeline and Wind Turbine in close proximity RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 31 the potential of creating massive dynamic overpres- sures within the soil that could threaten the integrity of services buried nearby. This article describes the state of the art approach to assessing possible impacts on buried pipelines due to this relatively new hazard and presents possible future developments. PROBABILISTIC ANALYSIS FOR RELEVANT WIND TURBINE FAILURE SCENARIOS Various wind turbine mechanical failure scenarios can be considered relevant for the integrity of a buried pipeline. It is known that any falling mass impacting the ground generates dynamic overpressures that spread within the soil until complete dissipation. If a pipeline is buried in the portion of soil affected by the distribution of this over- pressure, the effects in term of stress and strain induced on the pipeline strongly depend on the energy released by the impact, the nature of the soil and the minimum distance of the pipeline from the surface impact point. It should be noted that wind turbine failure scenarios are unpredictable in nature as mechanical failures are typically associated with a number of different possible causes and collapse mechanisms. From a qualitative assessment of the available data re- ported in “Wind Turbine accident compilation” [Ref./4/] (www.caithnesswindfarms.co.uk), where a total of 1614 accidents of varying nature involving wind turbines occurred were studied from the 80’s in the case of mechanical failure of wind turbines, it was observed that the falling masses generally consisted of: fragments of blades or whole blades nacelles • • • masts An estimate of the annual failure frequency for the dif- ferent failure scenarios are reported in the article “Failure frequency calculation of transmission pipeline or sta- tions due to nearby wind turbines” [Ref./7/]. The article discusses the methodology that includes potential wind turbine mechanical failures in quantitative risk assess- ment which was developed by DNV GL and presented in “Handboek Risicozonering Windturbines” [Ref./6/]. The mentioned methodology was published by the Neth- erlands Enterprise Agency and is the standard used in the Netherlands. The failure frequency was estimated considering three source databases: • Accident database presented in the Caithness Wind- farm Information Forum. This database reports wind turbine accidents occurring in Holland, Great Britain,
32 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY Germany and Denmark. The information was consid- ered reliable however, as the accident data are also relate to the period prior to 2000, it has been estab- lished that many of the accidents were not represen- tative of current wind turbine standard technology. • Windkraft Journal Database which collects worldwide accident data. However, further review of the data es- tablished that the database is largely incomplete and therefore the information led to significantly underes- timated rupture frequencies. Failure frequency data provided by two main wind turbine manufacturers whose identities and statistics were kept confidential. • Based on the above, the following main failure frequen- cies are provided: Failure Mode Frequency Blade Rupture (turbine operating at design speed) 8.4 x 10-4 event/year Nacelle Mast rupture 4.0 x 10-5 event/year 1.3 x 10-4 event/year Table 1: Failure frequency derived from “Handboek Risicozonering Windtur- bines” as reported in article “Failure frequency calculation of transmission pipeline or stations due to nearby wind turbines” Other frequency information can be obtained from the official internet website of GCube (http://www.gcube-in- surance.com/), reportedly [Ref./4/] the largest provider of insurance services for renewable energy projects in wind, solar, biofuels, wave, hydro and tidal around the globe. GCube provides an estimate of the annual frequency of mechanical failure of wind turbines involving blade rup- tures. In particular, GCube estimates 3,800 blade failure incidents per year against 700,000 blades in operation, which would lead to a frequency of 1/184 blade per year or more simply one incident per 61 turbines in opera- tion. GCube specifies further that the failure rate varies greatly from country to country and from manufacturer to manufacturer. In addition, GCube also provides the statistics of the top five most common failures based on wind ener- gy insurance claims made in the United States on its website. The data are based on 2012 US reported claims and show that blade and gearbox failure are the most frequent failure modes accounting for 41.4% and 35.1% of the total claims reported. Damage to generators (10.2%) and transformers (5.1%) ranked third and fourth followed by damage to founda- tions. Cumulatively these failures cover over 92% of total claims, that would lead to the reasonable assumption that nacelle failure and mast rupture would be charac- terized by annual frequency rates at least one order of magnitude lower than that of blade rupture. EXAMPLE OF DESIGN CONDITIONS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR ASSESSING PIPELINE ROUTES NEAR WIND FARMS Snam is Europe’s leading gas utility which has been operating for over 75 years in Italy, and operates through its subsidiaries in Austria (TAG and GCA), France (TIGF) and the United Kingdom (Interconnector UK). In April 2014, Snam issued the updated Gas Pipeline Design Manual GASD C.04.01.00 “Manuale Di Progettazi- one Gasdotti – PROG.1” Rev.2 [Ref./2/]. This regulation is sent to/meant for gas pipeline design contractors and establishes the basic principles, design criteria, design requirements and target quality performances for each design level. In clause 3.1 of PROG.1, with reference to the general criteria for the identification of possible pipeline route alignments, and in relation to the requirement to minimize potential interferences with criticalities located in the area, the presence of wind farm and wind turbines is mentioned/named/considered as a criticality. A section was developed where the following issues are addressed: • • identification of specific risk buffer zones originated by wind turbines pipeline design conditions and requirements triggered by interference with wind turbine risk buffer zones. Figure 2: figure from GASD C.04.01.00 [Ref./2]
The estimate of the risk buffer zones was conducted following the identification of credible collapse mech- anisms for wind turbines. More specifically, the extent of the buffer zone generated by each wind turbine was determined as the larger of the following two values: • • estimated maximum distance that a typical blade of a standard wind turbine might cover under nominal operating conditions, assuming that the whole blade breaks off at the root [Ref./5/]. estimated maximum distance reached by winds tur- bine parts assuming that critical failure of the foun- dation leads to a rigid rotation of the mast around the base point. This distance is then increased by an additional safety freeboard. Namely, this value is set as follows: blade length + mast length (above ground) + 10% Should the interference with the risk buffer zone gener- ated by a wind turbine be unavoidable and the pipeline route fall within the buffer zone, then PROG.1 would require a specific engineering assessment to assess possible consequences of critical mechanical failure of the wind turbine on the buried pipeline. USE OF SIMPLIFIED STATIC ELASTIC MODELS TO PREDICT POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF WIND TURBINE COLLAPSE ON BURIED PIPELINES Possible failure modes of a wind turbine that can be considered relevant for the integrity of a nearby buried service are those involving significant masses falling and hitting the ground surface. The impact generates dynamic overpressure that spreads into the soil and that can be ultimately transferred to a buried pipeline in re- lation, among other factors, to the minimum distance of the pipeline from the impact point, the nature of the soil, and the impact energy. RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 33 Standard analytical methods available for simplified static elastic analyses can be used to predict the effects on a buried pipeline caused by the surface impact of falling masses. Of particular interest for the Oil & Gas Pipeline Industry are the analytical expressions presented in ASCE-ALA “Guidelines for the Design of Buried Steel Pipe” [Ref. /3/]. According to the model presented in mentioned ASCE- ALA guidelines, the falling object is schematically considered to be cylindrical in shape with an equivalent impact radius r0. Figure 4: Static surface load due to large falling weights: ASCE-ALA “Guide- lines for the Design of Buried Steel Pipe” [Ref./3/] The above equation can be used to calculate the static surface load Pmax generated by the mechanical failure of a wind turbine according to the relevant failure scenarios considered: blade, nacelle and mast rupture. The effects in terms of stress and strain on a buried pipeline can be estimated from Pmax applying standard Boussinesq, through-wall bending stress, ring deflection, side wall crushing and critical ring buckling equations. In addition to standard stress and strain verifications, in case of large weights falling to the surface near the pipe location, it is important to verify that ground penetration depth does not exceed the burial depth of the pipeline in order to exclude the possibility of damage to the pipe- line due to direct contact with falling masses. According to the provisions of the ASCE-ALA guidelines, the penetration depth can be estimated as follows: Figure 3: Fall of a heavy object to the surface: ASCE-ALA “Guidelines for the Design of Buried Steel Pipe” (Ref./3/) where: xp = penetration depth Pa = weight per unit impact area V = impact velocity k = coefficient of penetration
34 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY A variable that greatly affects the estimate of the surface load and the penetration depth is the equivalent impact radius r0. The value of r0 is unpredictable by its nature as the exact configuration of the falling object at the time of impact is not known a priori. Depending on a number of factors, the trajectory of the same object (e.g. blade) could in fact end up impacting the ground with a smaller contact area, producing a higher penetration potential, or with a bigger contact area, producing, in this case, a higher overpressure potential. The number of uncertainties affecting the estimate of the equivalent impact radius would recommend that a sensitivity analysis performing multiple calculations assuming different values of r0 among those considered credible be conducted. An example of this approach can be found in Ref /1/. An example of indicative range of equivalent impact radii for mechanical failure of wind turbines can be also found in Ref. /8/. The main typical advantages of the adoption of static elastic models generally are that the related analyses are relatively simple and quick and as well as that the models are well established. The main disadvantage is the inherent conservativism. A few examples of the ASCE-ALA static elastic model application are briefly presented below. example 1: calculation of the probability that rel- evant Wind turbine failure modes might result in significant loading case for a buried pipeline. Failure probability derived from a typical frequency of wind turbine failure modes (e.g. Table 1) alone is not suf- ficient to understand the risk profile of a pipeline buried nearby. The overpressures generated by possible impacts of wind turbine parts collapsing to the ground might in fact result in negligible loadings on a buried pipeline if the impact point is sufficiently far away in relation to the impact energy, the equivalent impact radius and type of soil. With the aim of supporting risk assessments, a static elastic model can be used iteratively to calculate the probability that relevant wind turbine failure modes might produce significant loadings on a buried pipeline. The calculation process is described in Figure 7: Figure 8 numerically illustrates an example of sensitivity analysis conducted to identify the extent of the risk buf- fer zone across an existing buried pipeline generated by a blade failure scenario of a nearby wind turbine. In this specific case, the overall weight of the blade (W) is 7.7 Figure 5: Blade Failure, schematic impact with high pene- tration potential [Ref. /1/] Figure 6: Blade Rupture, schematic impact with high overpressure potential [Ref. /1/] tonnes, the characteristic falling height (Hf) is 100m and the 56” pipeline buried at a depth of cover (H) of 1.5m. Two different equivalent impact radii (r0) were investi- gated: 1m and 2.5m. The application of the analytical equations presented in the ASCE-ALA “Guidelines for the Design of Buried Steel Pipe” [Ref. /3/] for different values of the distance from the pipeline centreline to the surface impact point (d) shows that starting from a distance of 10m (ref. to Figure 8: scenario 1e and 1f), the overpressure generated by the impact produces negli- gible effects on the pipeline. As such, a 20m wide risk Figure 7: Calculation Process
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 35 1, reduces to a value of 4.28 x 10-5 the probability that a wind turbine blade would collapse to the ground resulting in a significant loading case for the 56” pipeline buried nearby. The same methodology can be used to assess other relevant wind turbine failure scenarios. example 2: design of risk mitigation measures The static elastic model presented in the ASCE-ALA “Guidelines for the Design of Buried Steel Pipe” [Ref. /3/] can be used for the design of possible mitigation measures against the risk of wind tur- bine blade failure as shown in Ref. /1/. The adopted mitigation philosophy is to enclose the production pipeline in a steel casing pipe that provides suffi- cient mechanical protection against the overpres- sure generated by the surface impact. According to the selected concept, the annulus, annular space between casing pipe and product pipe, is respon- sible for a key engineering function: it provides mechanical disconnection between the casing pipe and the product pipe which is vital for ensuring pipeline integrity after the impact. In particular, the casing pipe and the annulus should be adequately engineered so that any deformation of the casing pipe resulting from impact loads does not transfer significant loadings onto the product pipeline. For the same reason, proper design consideration is to be given to permanent accessories installed inside the casing pipe such as collar spacers. Improved casing pipe resistance to ovalisation can be achieved by specifying adequate compac- tion requirements of the sidefill and, if deemed necessary, the replacement of native soils with engineered soil mixes. Wherever possible and if required, enhancement of mechanical protection can also be achieved by constructing an engineered embankment above the natural ground level to reduce stress resulting from impact loads by: Figure 8: Example of sensitivity analysis to identify the extent of a risk buffer zone in the event of a blade failure scenario buffer zone across the pipeline centreline was assumed. The credible impact area for that type of blade, should the entire blade break off at the root, under nominal operating conditions, was considered to be circular in shape with a radius of 150m (according to Ref. /5/). The intersecting area between the credible impact area (150m radius circle centred from the wind turbine location) and the 20m wide risk buffer zone across the pipeline is, in this case, 3600m2. This lead to a proba- bility modifier of 0.05095 that, applied to the blade failure frequency shown in Table Figure 9: Example of a risk mitigation measure for blade failure
36 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY • • increasing the pipe depth of cover, and reducing the soil shear modulus by selecting proper embankment construction material. design verifications based on models and equations presented in Ref. /3/ include: • • • • calculation of maximum anticipated ring deflection for casing pipe, calculation of maximum through-wall bending stress for casing pipe, verification of the suitability of the annulus with respect to the maximum ring deflection, calculation of credible impact area to assess re- quired casing length The above mitigation philosophy and related calcula- tion methodology were extensively described in Ref. /1/ where the analysis was repeated for a number of different design scenarios related to several wind turbines and dif- ferent pipeline sections. The data in Figure 10 , taken from Ref. /1/, are presented here from for sake of providing a numerical example. PREVIEW OF INNOVATIVE APPROACH- ES USING MORE REFINED DYNAMIC-VIS- COELASTIC-HARDENING MODELS To reduce part of the conservatism associated with the adoption of simplified static elastic models, the use of innovative approaches based on more sophisticated wind turbine blade weight [W]: characteristic falling height [Hf]: equivalent impact radius [r0]: 2.8 tonnes 50.0 m 0.5 m, 2.5m product pipeline nominal diameter [ND] : 1200 mm (48”) product pipeline wall thickness [t]: product pipeline min. burial depth [Hmin]: 16.1 mm 1.95 m casing pipe nominal diameter [ND]: 1600 mm (64”) casing pipe pipeline wall thickness [t]: casing pipe min. required burial depth [H]: backfill & embankment max wave velocity [Vs]: embankment max. height [EHmax]: annulus final configuration: sidefill soil: sidefill compaction: Figure 10: Data taken from Ref. /1/ 31.8 mm 2.0 m 200 m/s 0.45 m left void crushed rock 95% of the standard Proctor density models can be investigated. Saipem is currently financing a Research & Development Project in collaboration with experts who have an ex- cellent reputation and are recognized by the scientific community as experts in the field with the aim of implementing sophisticated dynamic-viscoelastic-hard- ening models, based on experimental campaigns that can account for: • • dynamic effects, the influence of pipeline stiffness on soil stress distribution, Figure 11: Example of a calculation spreadsheet for the design of risk mitigation measures resulting from possible blade failure [Ref. /1/]
RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT / TECHNOLOGY PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 37 Figure 12: Dynamic-Viscoelastic-Hardening Model implemented in MIDAS software • • dissipation effects 3D effects A preliminary comparison with the results obtained using standard static elastic models would show signifi- cant margins to decrease the conservatism. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. SPC. LA-E-80530: “Studio Interferenze con Aerogeneratori C24, C25, C34, E82”. - Assessment of possible impacts of wind turbine mechanical failure on gas pipelines – Performed by Saipem and commissioned by Snam. GASD C.04.01.00 “Manuale di progettazione gasdotti - PROG.1” Rev.2 – Gas pipeline Design Manual - Snam “Guidelines for the Design of Buried Steel Pipe July 2001 with addenda through February 2005” - ASCE-ALA “Wind Turbine accident compilation” (www.caithnesswindfarms.co.uk) “Calcolo della traiettoria di una pala in caso di distacco in condizioni nominali di funzionamen- to” Impianto Eolico “Galliano” – Regione Puglia “Handboek Risicozonering Windturbines” (“Handbook on Risk Zoning of Wind Turbines”), version 3.1. Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland, September 2014. - Faassen, C.J., Franck, P.A.L., and Taris, A.M.H.W. Failure frequency calculation of transmission pipeline or stations due to nearby wind turbines, September 2016 - R.P. Coster, M.T. Middel, M.T. Droge. “The induction of vibrations on transmission pipelines by the fall of a heavy structure nearby: modelling the safety distances”- Dr Charles Fernandez, Laurent Bourgouin, Frederic Riegert, and Alain Pecker. “Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2017”, published by UN Environment, the Frankfurt School-UNEP Collaborating Centre, and Bloomberg New Energy Finance Authors Francesco Olivi Saipem Onshore Pipeline Engineer firstname.lastname@example.org Carlo Caffarelli Saipem GeoHazard Engineer email@example.com Agostino Napolitano Saipem Head of Onshore Pipeline firstname.lastname@example.org
With a pipeline length of around 70,000 km, Transneft is the world’s largest transporter of crude oil and petroleum products. Transneft was founded by the initiative of the Russian government in 1993. This initiative brought together all individual activities in the largest territorial state in the world - the Russian Federation, newly founded in 1991. Much has happened since then - the company has been modernized and the “dripping” Russian pipelines have slowly disappeared from the inves- tigative Western European press. Today, the company is ready to put its experiences up for discussion worldwide. Transneft does this itself, or through its subsidiaries PTI and Diascan, through increased appearanc- es in international trade journals, conferences and exhibitions. The Pipeline Technology Journal (ptj) dedicates this issue to the 25th anniversary of Transneft. Furthermore, the pipeline operator is a platinum sponsor with several presentations at the upcoming Pipeline Technology Conference (ptc), 18th to 21st March 2019 in Berlin. The following overview is based on information provided by Transneft. Dr. Klaus Ritter Editor in Chief Chairmen of the ptc GENERAL INFORMATION • • The company’s history goes back to the 1970s. In 1993 joint-stock oil transportation company Transneft was incorporated by the resolution of the Russian Government. • By the late 2000s the company launched a number of grand projects, namely, Eastern Siberia Pacific Ocean Pipeline System, Taishet – Skovorodino section (ESPO-1), Skovorodino–Kozmino section (ESPO-2) and Baltic Pipeline System-1,2. • Since the moment of Transneft incorporation the company has transported 10.1 billion tons of oil and 309 million tonnes of petroleum products over the past 10 years. • Over the past 25 years, the company’s oil transportation volumes have risen by nearly 40%. • The company’s oil pipelines connect the largest Russian oilfields with refineries and external markets in Europe and Asia, both directly and via seaports, which makes it one of the largest oil pipeline companies in the world. The company’s structure comprises oil and petroleum products transportation subsidiaries as well as auxiliary services and business activities (providing technological communications, de- partmental security, accounting services etc). Transneft subsidiaries regularly maintain, repair and upgrade pipelines and other industrial facil- ities, adopt energy and resource saving technologies, develop and use innovative methods and technologies of in-line inspection and pipeline condition monitoring. Transneft pays special attention to environmental and social issues, economic efficiency and busi- ness development of the Group. A broad range of measures aimed at ensuring counter-terrorist protection of industrial facilities, including the use of technical equipment, is being implemented. • • •
40 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL COMPANY PROFILE KEY INDICATORS • • • • • Transneft operates 53,000 km of trunk oil pipelines and 16,000 km of trunk petroleum product pipelines, the company’s pipeline system nearly doubles the Earth’s circumference. The company transports 85% of oil and 26% of petroleum products produced in Russia, as well as considerable volumes of raw hydrocarbons and petroleum products from the CIS countries. Transneft has more than 500 pumping stations operating throughout Russia and over 24 million m3 of tank farms. Transneft’s average tariff rate for oil transportation in 2017 amounted to 0.88 USD per 100 tons and km, which makes it one the cheapest in world’s midstream industry. Transneft is currently executing five infrastructure investment projects (Stage 2 of The Yug Project, the ESPO PS — Komsomolsk Refinery oil pipeline offshoot, Stage 2 of the Sever Project, Expanding the ESPO PS at the Skovorodino PS — Kozmino SSOP section, extension of the ESPO PS at the Tayshet IPS — Skovorodino PS section). Transneft owns 670 patents and certificates. • • Nowadays Transneft employs more than 114 000 people.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT In accordance with the Program of Strategic Development of Transneft till 2020, the main objective of the company is the development of the trunk pipeline transport in the Russian Federation in order to fully meet the needs of oil and oil-product transportation through application of state-of- the-art technologies and to ensure high reliability and industrial and environmental safety. The main ways to achieving this goals are: • Increase in capacity of the trunk pipeline system in order to ensure oil transportation in compli- ance with the projected volumes of oil production at operated and new oil fields; Improvement of energy efficiency through arrangements aimed to saving energy resources; Improvement of labor productivity; Innovative development of the production activity; • • • • Maintenance of reliability of the operated oil and oil-product trunk pipeline systems based on the results of diagnostics, reconstruction and modernization of the main assets; Improvement of environmental and industrial safety at industrial facilities of the company; • • Development of social guarantees for the company employees. • Harmonious combination of efficient activities of Transneft in these directions is the basis for the company’s sustainable development.
42 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL COMPANY PROFILE SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT In the field of safety and environment, Transneft sets the following objectives: reduction of the accident rate on trunk pipelines; elimination of the discharge of insufficiently treated effluents; • • • minimization of the adverse effects of operations on staff and local population. The company is taking measures aimed at preservation and replenishment of biological systems in operating regions, protection of species included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, biomonitoring of water resources, etc. Transneft has implemented and is using relevant management systems, such as the safety man- agement system based on the requirements set forth in the international standard BS OHSAS 18001:2007, the Energy Management System (in accordance with ISO 50001:2011) and the Envi- ronmental Management System (according to ISO 14001:2004). To execute the safety management system, the following steps are taken: • organization of facilities, reducing industrial waste, specific emissions and pollutant discharge into the environment where feasible; allocation of sufficient inventory, financial and human resources for environmental protection activities; reduction of greenhouse gas emissions; restoring and recovering disrupted areas; increasing environmental awareness, education and professionalism of the staff of Transneft and Transneft subsidiaries in the field of rational use of natural resources, environmental protection and safety. • • • •
INNOVATIONS AND R&D Innovative development is a priority area for Transneft. The company leads the industry by development and adoption of proprietary technologies with integrated systems for monitoring technical conditions of oil pipelines, high-precision in-line in- spection tools, enhanced efficiency energy-saving pump units, pipeline repair and overhaul tech- nologies and equipment, oil and petroleum products quantity and quality metering systems and oil vapour recovery units. Adoption of new technological solutions enables the company to maintain reliability and safety of trunk oil and petroleum product pipelines, ensuring continuous oil and petroleum product trans- portation to consumers in Russia and abroad, improving the economic performance, reducing costs and considerably enhancing process efficiency. In 2016, Transneft developed its Innovation Development Program for 2017–2021 based on the findings of the independent technological audit.
44 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL COMPANY PROFILE TRANSNEFT: NEW ROUTES FOR BUSINESS Abstract The article presents advances in technologies and equipment manufactured by Transneft to cover its own de- mand as well as for related industries. It highlights the Company’s experience in cooperation with foreign partners, including the establishment of joint-venture production facilities in Russia. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate Transneft’s industrial capacities for the manufacture of world-class equipment and its further promotion to the international markets.
By accomplishing tasks of national importance in the field of transportation of Russian crude oil and petroleum prod- ucts, Transneft diversifies supply flows and develops its operating infrastructure, including through cooperation with foreign partners aimed at constructive dialogue and work in areas of mutual interest. Figure 1: Skovorodino pipeline station tank farm, Transneft East Transneft is one of the largest pipeline companies in the world. Having some 70 thousand km of pipelines in operation and an impressive production capacities strong enough to manufacture equipment for pipelines and oil & gas industries, Transneft does not limit itself to the domestic demand, but promotes its products at external markets. Today, Transneft transports 84 % of crude produced in Russia, about 479 MMT. Technological upgrade, as well as manufacturing and pro- duction of new efficient equipment are a key to achieving planned indicators and retaining corporate efficiency. Transneft adopts innovative products, including those of its own factories, spending more than 1.4 % of its revenue on their development and upgrading. To name a few: high-precision in-line inspection tools, energy efficient pumping units with increased output efficiency, electric motors, lease automatic custody transfer units with enhanced parameters, electric drives for shut and control valves, as well as other types of highly reliable process equipment. SMART ELECTRIC DRIVE Facilities in Transneft’s vast pipeline network are mostly equipped with drives manufactured by TOMZEL factory in Tomsk, a Transneft subsidiary.
46 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL COMPANY PROFILE Figure 2: TOMZEL, JSC The core part of an electric drive is a reduction gear developed by Transneft and based on a unique gear design using intermediate rolling bodies. These drives are acknowledged as “smart” because of their expand- ed functionality owed to the electronic circuits inside the control unit. Today, TOMZEL manufactures all components of the elec- tric drives by itself, using Russian parts and materials. TOMZEL presents its products at exhibitions in Russia, China, Germany, Kazakhstan and Singapore. In 2017 TOMZEL launched direct product supplies to Kazakhstan. The TOMZEL electric drives have come a long way of upgrade since 2001, when the first system with an electronic control unit was manufactured, growing more and more demanding to pipeline valves’ actuators and controls, as well as to the degree of process automation. “During one exhibition we were approached by peo- ple from BMW, they were interested in our wave-gear drive”, - says Anatoly Soshchenko, head of R&D Unit of Transneft, in his interview to Expert, a Russian maga- zine (#23, 2018).
“Tapping into external markets is one of the key tasks for today. We’ve determined goals and objectives to achieve this. First of all, we need to ensure stable quality and reliability to cut maintenance and operational costs. Then, we should diversify the range of products”, - says Oleg Nikoforov, TOMZEL CEO. In order to expand the factory’s product range, the company’s management has decided to develop and put into production a new type of equipment in demand throughout the oil and gas sector. These include tools for measuring density and viscosity of crude oil and petroleum products, gas environment control units, ex- plosion-proof lighting and industrial computers. TRANSNEFT POTENTIAL FOR RELATED INDUSTRIES The modernized plant of Transneftemash (Velikiye Luki, Pskov Region) gives a good example of prod- ucts demanded by pipeline and oil producing compa- nies alike. The plant’s products are also used by other companies of CIS countries. Figure 3, 4, 5: Transneftemash plant
48 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL COMPANY PROFILE Figure 6, 7: Transneft Oil Pumps In 2017 the plant underwent technical re-equipment, including the following: a considerable increase in production capacities, commissioning of robotic lines and expansion of the products range, now listing some 200 items. The main products of the plant are lease automatic custody transfer systems (LACTS), oil quality meter- ing units, meter runs and piston provers. Application of uniform functional components and units helped reduce LACT production costs. Me- ter runs manufactured by the plant are a core part of the LACT, and they have enhanced operational parameters. They operate in cold climate down to 60 degrees Celsius below zero and seismicity up to 9 points by MSK64 scale. COOPERATION IN THE LOCALIZATION OF PRODUCTION An important step towards the localization of mainline and booster pumps’ production was the commission- ing of the Transneft Oil Pumps (TOP) factory in Chely- abinsk in 2016. The new plant has covered Transneft’s demand in all types of pumps. Its production capacity is 180 horizontal pumps and 20 vertical pumps a year. The plant has a potential to expand pump production for other industries. One year after its inauguration, TOP was acknowl- edged as the best machinery manufacturer in Russia according to the nation-wide competition. “The plant’s design adopted the world’s best practices and unique equipment: measuring complexes, bal- ancing machines, hydrostatic testing bench. The TOP testing center for parametric tests is the biggest one in Europe”, - says N. Prokopenko, TOP CEO 93% of equipment and materials supplied to Transneft companies are manufactured domestically. The company’s cooperation with foreign partners mainly focuses on establishing joint manufacturing plants to localize the manufacturing of foreign products in Russia. However, the task is not simply to copy a foreign prod- uct, but to develop a piece of equipment with enhanced reliability and energy efficiency parameters. TOP products boast the highest level of reliability and operational safety. In 2018, TOP has successful- ly passed a recertification audit for compliance with ISO 9001:2015 requirements for quality manage- ment systems. Based on the audit results, the plant received a com- pliance certificate, which confirms that the pumps’ manufacturing is under perfect control.
CHELYABINSK IS A PRODUCTION SITE FOR THE PIPELINE INDUSTRY In last October another production plant, Russian Elec- tric Motors, was inaugurated at the same site with TOP. The company’s priorities for today are innovations and development of new technologies and equipment. As the first step, the plant began manufacturing power engines ranging from 0.3 MW to 14.5 MW. It is planned to extend the product range up to 45-MW motors, thus fully covering the domestic demand in electric motors to drive LNG compressors. Such motors are required for energy projects in the northern parts of Russia. The plant’s output capacity will reach 300 electric mo- tors a year starting from 2019. Although the plant has been commissioned only re- cently, Transneft partners from CIS countries already express their interest in the products. The plant has been built in partnership with Nidec ASI S.p.A., Italy. CONCLUSION Transneft is celebrating its 25th anniversary as one of the world’s pipeline leaders, having strong infrastructure and a broad range of specialized equipment equivalent to the world’s best prototypes in terms of technical parameters. Authors Dmitry A. Dvornikov Transneft Head, Production Management Section email@example.com Andrey F. Kopysov Transneft Chief Power Engineer firstname.lastname@example.org STAY UP TO DATE WITH THE PTJ-NEWSLETTER Latest pipeline news from all over the world Newest Products and Solutions for the industry Biweekly update, comprehensive, free of charge and reliable https://newsletter.eitep.de
50 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL COMPANY PROFILE ENERGY SAVING TECHNOLOGIES AT WORK Abstract The article discusses the strategy for energy efficiency enhancing in the pipeline industry, implemented by Trans- neft, which includes creating breakthrough technologies, developing and upgrading technologies and equipment essential for the oil pipeline transportation. It provides examples of introducing energy efficient technologies, which reduced the Company’s specific electricity consumption by 16% over the last 9 years. According to KPMG, the international audit group, Transneft is one of the most energy efficient pipeline companies in the world in terms of specific electricity consumption. The anticipated effect of such innovative energy saving technologies shall exceed EURO 65 mn by 2020.
During the last few years, the Russian company Transneft has made an innovation breakthrough in boosting effi- ciency of its operations and saving energy resources. Reasonable prioritizing policy and investment in R&D helped Transneft to develop technologies now demanded on both domestic and international markets. Figure 1: Steel anchor mast for a 110-kV power line Transneft started to use a system approach to energy saving years ago, making it one of its priorities. management system under the international standard ISO 50001:2011. Though the company is a major electricity consumer, 1.3 % of the overall national consumption, it has reduced its specific electricity consumption by 16% over the last 9 years (from 2009 through 2017), having saved 2.8 billion kWh, or about EURO 90 mn. “Within the next 5 years Transneft is going to undertake energy saving measures to reduce its specific electricity consumption for oil pumping by 1.9%, which will save us additional 0.6 bn kWh, or EURO 8 mn”, says A. Kopysov, Chief Power Engineer of Transneft. Transneft is going to reach this figure by optimizing oil pumping processes, using energy-saving equipment and alternative energy resources. In 2014, Transneft became the first Russian major company to have comprehensively adopted the energy M. Drechsel, a representative of the certifying authority, CEO of DQS Holding GmbH and president of IQNet says: “Transneft is the first Russian major company to have certified the entire system of its energy management, encompassing both the control functions of the compa- ny’s management and all operating facilities, including 13 oil trunk pipelines and 4 sea terminals”. NATIONAL PRIORITY In 2017, Transneft’s efforts in the field of energy saving were highly appraised by both the professional com- munity and the Russian Ministry of Energy as the best comprehensive program implemented in the fuel and energy sector for raising energy-saving awareness and enhancing energy efficiency. The program also included the results of energy saving technologies approved after relevant R&D work by Transneft.
52 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL COMPANY PROFILE A big portion of this R&D work is carried out by the Pipeline Transport Institute (PTI). These works include establishment of a hydrodynamic test bench for testing drag-reducing agents for oil and petroleum products, development of special coating for pipelines, creation of a process engineer’s automated workplace capable of calculating optimal parameters for pumping oil and petroleum products while consuming as little electricity as possible, and other technologies. The variable frequency drive (VFD) developed by Trans- neft for mainline pumps has parameters equivalent to the world’s analogues. It is planned to install pumps with VFD having the power range from 800 kW to 12,000 kW at Transneft facilities to ensure optimal operating modes for oil pipelines, as well as to extend the operational life of equipment and carry out scheduled works on energy saving. Last November a digital substation was installed, for the first time in Transneft, at one of the oil pumping facilities of Transneft. It has such technical solutions as digital measuring transformers and central relay protection units. Adoption of this technology is the most promising way of development in Russia’s power sector. The project is supported by the Ministry of Energy of Russia and has been designated as a National Project. It provides for the construction of two integrated 110/6- kW substation facilities and boasts unique technical solutions for the power industry in Russia and worldwide. It is planned to implement the functions of all auxiliary systems of the substation within a single unit, includ- ing relay protection, SCADA, commercial metering and quality control of electricity. The concept also provides for remote control, development of information security measures and new approaches to maintenance. ENERGY EFFICIENT PUMPING Most of the electricity saving during oil transportation is achieved by optimizing the pumping processes. A considerable reduction in specific electricity con- sumption during the pumping is achieved by using the Process Engineer’s Automated Workplace software, calculating optimal conditions for pumping crude oil and petroleum products while consuming as little power as possible given the applicable equipment limitations. In 2017 such software was installed at all Transneft facili- ties engaged in the pumping. Another promising solution for the construction or re- construction of Transneft facilities is the use of variable frequency drives of pumps coupled with modern electric motors. This equipment has a higher efficiency rate and longer maintenance intervals. It is designed to reduce hydraulic loads and to increase the operational life and energy saving. ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES Today Transneft generates nearly 90% of the thermal energy consumed by the company’s operations. It only purchases some 10% from third-party suppliers. Energy efficient solutions developed by the company are broadly applied in the design and construction of infra- structure facilities in areas with harsh climate conditions, located far away from the public grids. Special struc- tures, thermal insulating materials and most advanced equipment allow to reduce the energy consumption to a minimum. The company uses alternative energy sources, such as wind generators and solar panels. Scientific and engi- neering research is currently underway on a hybrid solar and wind unit for self-sustained power supply. When relying on its own sources of heat, Transneft uses boiler houses with modern automated and highly-effi- cient equipment. This year the PTI took part in designing a water boiler with enhanced energy efficiency. “We have achieved excellent results. The prototype’s efficiency rate is 95.5% with liquid fuel”, - says B. Grisha, head of external projects section. Once the tests are over, this unit will be installed at all Transneft facilities. ENERGY EFFICIENCY BENCHMARKING: Apart from developing and upgrading technologies and equipment essential for the pipeline transportation of oil, the PTI, as a leading Russian R&D agency for the pipeline industry, implements projects of development of breakthrough technologies and methods. In particular, the PTI has been designated as a data processing center and a general contractor for energy
Figure 2: ADIPEC 2018 exhibition & conference, IAOT stand efficiency benchmarking of oil transportation facilities. “Energy efficiency benchmarking” means a tool to com- pare the company’s key energy indicators with those of its peers in order to identify possible opportunities for energy efficiency increase. The energy efficiency benchmarking method has a good potential to assert itself at Eurasian markets. The meth- od was made public at the ADIPEC 2018 international conference in Abu Dhabi, UAE, and drew interest from pipeline companies around the world. The method was developed by the PTI on order from the International Association of Oil Transporters, whose members are companies from Russia, Hungary, Czech Re- public, Slovakia, China, Kazakhstan, Belarus and Ukraine. The method provides a solution for one of the industry’s most acute problems: how to reduce specific electricity consumption for oil and petroleum products transporta- tion. It is based on the analysis and comparison of energy efficiency of various processes. The obtained results deliver comprehensive conclusions and practical recom- mendations on energy efficiency enhancing. CONCLUSION Transneft is constantly working on new technologies that help reduce energy consumption. The anticipated effect of such innovative energy saving technologies shall exceed EURO 65 mn by 2020. Today, according to KPMG, the international audit group, Transneft is one of the most energy efficient pipeline companies in the world in terms of specific electricity consumption. Authors Andrey F. Kopysov Transneft Chief Power Engineer email@example.com
54 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL CONFERENCES / SEMINARS / EXHIBITIONS 14TH PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE Pipeline T Europe’s Leading Pipeline Conference and Exhibition 18-21 MARCH 2019, ESTREL CONVENTION CENTER, BERLIN, GERMANY Conference 2010 EVENT PREVIEW 800+ DELEGATES 80+ EXHIBITORS 50+ DIFFERENT NATIONS From 18-21 March 2019 Europe’s leading conference and exhibition on pipeline systems, the Pipeline Technology Conference, will take place for the 14th time. The core ptc (19-21) will be supplemented with two side conferences and a number of seminars, taking place on 18th of march. ptc 2019 offers again opportunities for operators as well as technology and service providers to exchange latest onshore and offshore technologies and new developments supporting the energy strategies world-wide. More than 800 delegates and 80 exhibitors are expect- ed to participate in the 14th ptc in Berlin. The practical nature of ptc was always based on the cooperation with our technical and scientific supporters and on a top-class interna- tional advisory committee. The conference will feature lectures and presentations on all aspects surrounding oil, gas, water and product high, medium and low pressure pipeline systems. Please take a closer look into he “First Announcement and Call for Papers” and get involved now - send in your presentation suggestion and reserve your booth at the exhibition.
CONFERENCES / SEMINARS / EXHIBITIONS PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 55 Pipeline T Conference 2010 14TH PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE & EXHBITION EUROPE’S LEADING PIPELINE EVENT THE ANNUAL GATHERING OF THE INTERNATIONAL PIPELINE COMMUNITY IN THE HEART OF EUROPE After starting as a small side event of the huge HANNOVER MESSE trade show in 2006, the Pipe- line Technology Conference developed into Eu- rope’s largest pipeline conference and exhibition. Since 2012 the EITEP Institute organizes the ptc on its own and moved the event to Berlin in 2014. EXHIBITORS OF PTC 2018: 70+ Pipeline Operators 17 thematic focuses at ptc 2019 Construction Corrosion Protection Digitalization Environmental Impact Illegal Tapping Inline Inspection Integrity Management Leak Detection Maintenance & Repair Materials Offshore Technologies Planning & Design Pump & Compressor Stations Stress Corrosion Cracking Third Party Impact Trenchless Technologies Valves & Fittings ptc Side Conferences • Qualification & Recruitment • Public Perception ptc Seminars • Inspection Technologies for Traditional and Challenging Pipelines • Inspection of Offshore Pipe- lines and Risers • Pipeline Life-cycle Extension Strategies • Risk Assessment and Man- agement of Pipeline Projects subjected to Geohazards 2 4
56 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL CONFERENCES / SEMINARS / EXHIBITIONS Diamond Sponsor Platinum Sponsors Golden Sponsors Silver Sponsors ptc Marketing Power Take advantage of the reach and power of ptc with a multi-faceted marketing program designed specifically to benefit the sponsors appearing at ptc 2019. Pre-Event Marketing • Adverts in Media Partner Journals • ptc Website • Pipeline Technology Journal (ptj) • ptc + ptj Newsletter • Press Releases • • Brochures • Direct Mailings • Promotion at Networking Events Social Media Activities During the Event Social Media Activities • Brochure in Conference Bag • • Networking Events • Conference Breaks within Exhibition Area Post-Event Marketing • Press Releases • ptc + ptj Newsletter • • • ptc Website • Pipeline Technology Journal (ptj) Final Report Social Media Activities 30K Verified Addresses 22 Media Partners >2K Followers on social networks Get in touch with us if you would like to get to know more about our sponsoring Opportunities. 42 Advisory Committee Members 16 Supporting Associations
CONFERENCES / SEMINARS / EXHIBITIONS PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 57 CONFIRMED EXHIBITORS AS OF 06.12.2018 50+ DIFFERENT NATIONS DELEGATIONS FROM 70+ DIFFERENT PIPELINE OPERATORS FROM ALL AROUND THE WORLD 800+ DELEGATES 80+ EXHIBITORS 100+ PRESENTATIONS 25 TECHNICAL SESSIONS ACCOMPANYING SCIENTIFIC POSTER SHOW REGISTER YOUR STAND AT www.pipeline-conference.com/stand-booking THEMATIC FOCUSES: CONSTRUCTION CORROSION PROTECTION DIGITALIZATION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ILLEGAL TAPPING INLINE INSPECTION INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT LEAK DETECTION MAINTENANCE & REPAIR MATERIALS OFFSHORE TECHNOLOGIES PLANNING & DESIGN PUMP & COMPRESSOR STATIONS STRESS CORROSION CRACKING THIRD PARTY IMPACT TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGIES VALVES & FITTINGS
58 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL CONFERENCES / SEMINARS / EXHIBITIONS 14TH PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE 18-21 MARCH 2019, BERLIN, GERMANY EUROPE’S LEADING PIPELINE CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION www.pipeline-conference.com PTC CONFERENCE Plenary Session Plenary Session Eurasian Pipeline Forum - Linking East and West Pipelines 2050: From Fossil Fuels to Renewable Fuels? There is a long tradition of energy cooperation between Europe and Asia. For decades, Russia has been a reliable partner for the supply of crude oil and natural gas. A number of other initiatives are currently being developed. The decline in the cost of renewable energies has opened the prospect of large-scale production of green hydrogen and liquid e-fuels. Pipelines can play an important role in this process. Panel Discussion Digital Transformation and Cyber Security in the Pipeline Industry Panel Discussion Illegal Tapping - Focus Regions, Monitoring and Counter Measures? As the energy industry is already in a consistent digital transformation, and manufacturers and service providers begin to make use of IoT tools and products, the industry’s infrastructure must also improve cyber security mechanisms and processes. Illegal tapping and product theft are severe problems not only regarding economic aspects but also in terms of safety and integrity of the pipeline. These problems exist not only in emerging markets but currently also in developed regions like Europe. 85 Presentations in 25 Technical Sessions on 5 Concurrent Tracks Main Conference Construction Corrosion Protection Digitalization Environmental Impact Illegal Tapping Inline Inspection Integrity Management Leak Detection Maintenance & Repair Materials Offshore Technologies Planning & Design PTC EXHIBITION Pump & Compressor Stations Stress Corrosion Cracking Third Party Impact Trenchless Technologies Valves & Fittings Exhibition of the Pipeline Industry Exhibitors from all over the world present their services and innovations Open for delegates and visitors. Place of get-together and all coffee and lunch breaks. Enjoy beverages within the conference lounge and discuss with partners in private meeting rooms. PTC SIDE CONFERENCE Qualification & Recruitment PTC SIDE CONFERENCE Public Perception How can we continue to attract and develop qualified young talent and personnel in the pipeline business in a changing world? Experience dialogue on different international approaches. How can we win the public perception of the benefits, safety and reliability of pipelines in a changing world? Experience dialogue on different international approaches. 12 Presentations 1 Panel Discussion 12 Presentations 1 Panel Discussion Translation from English to German Translation from English to German PTC SEMINARS PTC WORKSHOPS PTC ROUND TABLE Four full-day pipeline seminars that deepen knowledge of the pipeline business: Practical workshops focussing on new technologies Pipeline Operator Experience Sharing on “Illegal Tapping” 1. Pipeline Life-Cycle Extension Strategies for all ptc participants for pipeline operators only 2. Inspection Technologies for Traditional and Challenging Pipelines 3. Geohazards in Pipeline Engineering 4. Inspection of Offshore Pipelines & Risers SOCIAL GATHERINGS Monday Tuesday Wednesday ptc Reception ptc get-together ptc Dinner Invitation
EUROPE’S LEADING PIPELINE CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION 14TH PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE 18-21 MARCH 2019, BERLIN, GERMANY Seminars organized within the framework of the Pipeline Technology Conference 2019 18 MARCH 2019 SEMINAR TOPICS Pipeline Life-cycle Extension Strategies Inspection Technologies forTraditional and Challenging Pipelines Risk Assessment and Management of Pipeline Project subjected to Geohazards Inspection of Offshore Pipelines and Risers ein Event Euro Institute for Information and Technology Transfer Mehr Informationen unter: www.pipeline-conference.com/seminars
60 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL CONFERENCES / SEMINARS / EXHIBITIONS JOB & CAREER MARKET YOUR OPPORTUNITY TO ATTRACT PROFESSIONALS AND HIGH POTENTIALS The international pipeline community is in need of additional personnel. We need more experienced pro- fessionals, but we also need young graduates to join our ranks. Despite attractive working conditions, many companies encounter problems while they are reaching out to potential re- cruits. There are many competing in- dustry sectors who are also in need of high potentials. This results in many vacant jobs in the pipeline community, for operators, technology providers and service providers alike. This necessity has driven us to develop a new service for the global pipeline indus- try. For this reason, we organize the first ptc side conference on Qualification and Recruitment. ptc side conference on Qualification and Recruitment 18 March 2019 Estrel Convention Center Berlin, Germany In the frame of
CONFERENCES / SEMINARS / EXHIBITIONS PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 61 ONE SERVICE - MULTIPLE CHANNELS International Universities Offensive approach: We push forward and gen- erate attention to our career market directly at the universities. We also collect CVs from inter- national graduates and experts and forward it directly to you. Website Continuous promotion : Your vacancies are published on the Pipeline Technology Journal (ptj) website. In Addition, the ptj contains your vacancies too. Biweekly Newsletter Dead on target: We send your vacancies or your company profile to our database of 50,000 international pipeline professionals. International Events Physical appearance: The job & career market has an indi- vidual booth during all EITEP events. Questions? You get: Please contact Mr. Admir Celovic for further information and booking requests. firstname.lastname@example.org +49 / 511 / 90992-20 The most cost-effective support to your recruitment efforts available to the market
62 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL COMPANY DIRECTORY Association IAOT - International Association of Oil Transporters Czech Republic www.iaot.eu/ DVGW - German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water Germany www.dvgw.de Automation Siemens Germany www.siemens.com Yokogawa Japan www.yokogawa.com Certification Bureau Veritas Germany www.bureauveritas.de DNV GL Norway www.dnvgl.com TÜV SÜD Indutrie Service Germany www.tuev-sued.de/is Cleaning Reinhart Hydrocleaning Switzerland www.rhc-sa.ch/rhc/ Coating 1/2 Denso Germany www.denso.de Kebulin-gesellschaft Kettler Germany www.kebu.de Coating 2/2 Polyguard Products United States www.polyguard.com Premier Coatings United Kingdom www.premiercoatings.com/ RPR Technologies Norway www.rprtech.com/ Shawcor United States www.shawcor.com TDC International Switzerland www.tdc-int.com TIAL Russia www.tial.ru TIB Chemicals Germany www.tib-chemicals.com Construction 1/2 BIL - Federal German Construction Enquiry Portal Germany bil-leitungsauskunft.de Herrenknecht Germany www.herrenknecht.com IPLOCA - International Pipe Line & Offshore Contractors Association Switzerland www.iploca.com MAX STREICHER Germany www.streicher.de/en Petro IT Ireland www.petroit.com
PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 63 COMPANY DIRECTORY Construction 2/2 Inline Inspection 2/2 VACUWORX Netherlands www.vacuworx.com Vlentec The Netherlands www.vlentec.com Construction Machinery Maats Netherlands www.maats.com Worldwide Group Germany www.worldwidemachinery.com VIETZ Germany www.vietz.de Engineering ILF Consulting Engineers Germany www.ilf.com KÖTTER Consulting Engineers Germany www.koetter-consulting.com Inline Inspection 1/2 3P Services Germany www.3p-services.com A.Hak Industrial Services Netherlands www.a-hak-is.com Baker Huges, a GE company United States www.bakerhughes.com Intero Integrity Services Netherlands www.intero-integrity.com/ KTN AS Norway www.ktn.no LIN SCAN United Arab Emirates www.linscaninspection.com NDT Global Germany www.ndt-global.com Pipesurvey International Netherlands www.pipesurveyinternational.com PPSA - Pigging Products and Services Association United Kingdom www.ppsa-online.com Romstar Malaysia www.romstargroup.com Rosen Switzerland www.rosen-group.com Inspection Ametek – Division Creaform Germany www.creaform3d.com Applus RTD Germany www.applusrtd.com EMPIT Germany www.empit.com Integrity Management Metegrity Canada www.metegrity.com Pipeline Innovations United Kingdom www.pipeline-innovations.com
64 PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL COMPANY DIRECTORY Leak Detection Asel-Tech Brazil www.asel-tech.com Atmos International United Kingdom www.atmosi.com Direct-C Canada www.direct-c.ca Entegra United States www.entegrasolutions.com Fotech Solutions United Kingdom www.fotech.com GOTTSBERG Leak Detection Germany www.leak-detection.de MSA Germany www.MSAsafety.com/detection OptaSense United Kingdom www.optasense.com Pergam Suisse Switzerland www.pergam-suisse.ch PSI Software Germany www.psioilandgas.com sebaKMT Germany www.sebakmt.com SolAres (Solgeo / Aresys) Italy www.solaresweb.com Monitoring 1/2 Airborne Technologies Austria www.airbornetechnologies.at Monitoring 2/2 Krohne Messtechnik Germany www.krohne.com SolSpec United States www.solspec.solutions Operators Transneft Russia www.en.transneft.ru/ TRAPIL France www.trapil.com/en/ Pump and Compressor Stations TNO The Netherlands www.pulsim.tno.nl Repair CITADEL TECHNOLOGIES United States www.cittech.com Clock Spring United States www.clockspring.com RAM-100 United States www.ram100intl.com T.D. Williamson United States www.tdwilliamson.com Research & Development Pipeline Transport Institute (PTI LLC) Russia www.en.niitn.transneft.ru
PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL 65 COMPANY DIRECTORY Safety Trenchless Technologies DEHN & SÖHNE Germany www.dehn-international.com/en HIMA Germany www.hima.de Signage Franken Plastik Germany www.frankenplastik.de/en Surface Preparation MONTI - Werkzeuge GmbH Germany www.monti.de GSTT - German Society for Trenchless Technology Germany www.gstt.de Rädlinger Primus Line Germany www.primusline.com Valves & Fittings AUMA Germany www.auma.com Zwick Armaturen Germany www.zwick-armaturen.de Further boost your brand awareness and list your company within the ptj - Company Directory www.pipeline-journal.net/advertise January 2019 In the next Edition of ptj: Inline Inspection & Integrity Management The next issue of Pipeline Technology Journal (ptj) will address Inline Inspection & Integrity Management. This is a great opportunity for skilled authors to submit insightful papers and to contribute to the global pipeline industry’s constant professional exchange.
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14TH PIPELINE TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE Europe’s Leading Pipeline Conference and Exhibition 18-21 MARCH 2019, ESTREL CONVENTION CENTER, BERLIN, GERMANY www.pipeline-conference.com Next Issue: January 2019 Pipeline Technology Journal In the next Edition of ptj: Inline Inspection & Integrity Management www.pipeline-journal.net Event Calendar 14th Pipeline Technology Conference (ptc) 19 - 21 March 2019 Berlin, Germany ptc Side Conferences: on Qualification & Recruitment on Public Perception 18 March 2019 18 March 2019 Berlin, Germany Berlin, Germany Commercial UAV Expo Europe 08 April 2019 Amsterdam, Netherlands UESI Pipelines 2019 Conference 21 July 2019 Nashville, Tennessee, USA
Pipeline Technology Journal You have interesting content to share with the global pipeline community? You want to enhance or maintain your international visibility as a company? Submit an Article! Book an Advertisement ! Use ptj as a platform to report about your news, projects, innovations and technologies. If you are interested in submit- ting insightful technical articles to be considered for the ptj, please send us an abstract for review. North America 37,8% Europe 33.4% Mena Region 6.8% Africa 2.5% South America 4.5% Asia 12.6% China special e-mail list of 20.000 recipients Oceania 2.5% The ptj-brand offers a multitude of advertisement opportunities to increase visibility and reputation to- ward pipeline professionals worldwide. Make use of the extensive ptj-portfolio and reach over 30,000 Experts. ptc ADVISORY COMMITTEE / ptj EDITORIAL BOARD ptj-brand-audiences CHAIRMEN Heinz Watzka, Senior Advisor, EITEP Institute Dirk Strack, Technical Director, TAL - Deutsche Transalpine Oelleitung MEMBERS Ulrich Adriany, Senior Technical Expert, ARCADIS Deutschland Arthur Braga, Country Manager, ITF Brazil Jens Focke, CEO, BIL Maximilian Hofmann, Managing Director, MAX STREICHER Dirk Jedziny, Vice President - Head of Cluster Ruhr North, Evonik Industries Dr. Andreas Liessem, Managing Director, Europipe Ralf Middelhauve, Head of Central Dept. Process Industrie / Plant Engineering and Operation, TÜV NORD Systems Dr. Prodromos Psarropoulos, Structural & Geotechnical Engineer, National Technical University of Athens Uwe Ringel, Managing Director, ONTRAS Gastransport Muhammad Sultan Al-Qahtani, General Manager, Pipelines, Saudi Aramco Filippo Cinelli, Senior Marketing Manager, Baker Hughes, a GE company Andreas Haskamp, Pipeline Joint Venture Management, BP Europa SE Dr. Thomas Hüwener, Managing Director Technical Services, Open Grid Europe Cliff Johnson, President, PRCI - Pipeline Research Council International Michael Lubberger, Senior Prod- uct Manager Pipeline, BU Utility Tunnelling, Herrenknecht Steffen Paeper, Offshore Engineering, South Stream Juan Arzuaga, Executive Secretary, IPLOCA Dr. Marion Erdelen-Peppler, Secretary General, EPRG - European Pipeline Research Group Jörg Himmerich, Managing Di- rector / Technical Expert, Dr.-Ing. Veenker Ing.-ges. Mark David Iden, Director, Gov- ernment Relations, Floating Leaf Mike Liepe, Head Business Solu- tion Line O&G Pipelines, Siemens Brigham McCown, Chairman and CEO, Nouveau Bruno Pomaré, Technical Director, Spiecapag Frank Rathlev, Manager of Network Operations, Thyssengas Dr. Joachim Rau, Managing Director, DVGW CERT Hermann Rosen, President, ROSEN Group Michael Schad, Head of Sales International, DENSO Audience Job Levels 11% CEO 20% Director 26% Manager 43% Executive Company types 23% Operators 61% Techn. / Service Providers 11% Researchers 4% Authorities Dr. Adrian Schaffranietz, Coordi- nator Government Relations, Nord Stream 2 Prof. Dr. Jürgen Schmidt, Manag- ing Director, CSE Center of Safety Excellence Ulrich Schneider, Business Development Manager Continental Europe, KTN Guntram Schnotz, Expert / Pipeline, TÜV SÜD Industrie Service Carlo Maria Spinelli, Technology Planner, eni gas & power Anand Kumar Tewari, Executive Director, Indian Oil Corporation A manifold database Asle Venas, Senior Pipeline Special- ist, DNV GL Paul Waanders, Int. Sales Manager, Maats Pipeline Equipment George Ziborov, Leading expert, Foreign Economic Relations Department, Transneft Bernd Vogel, Head of Network Department, GASCADE Gastransport Tobias Walk, Director of Projects – Pipeline Systems, ILF Consulting Engineers Roger Vogel, Sales Manager - EURA, Baker Hughes, a GE company Thomas Wolf, CEO, NDT Global We deliver content to local practicioners and global decision-makers alike, making the ptj- brand a suitable tool for global knowledge dis- tribution as well as developing and upholding overall visibility in the global pipeline industry.